Shva, Śvā, Sva: 19 definitions


Shva means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śvā can be transliterated into English as Sva or Shva, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Śvā (श्वा).—Unfit to be seen during a śrāddha; touching it is a sin.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 14. 48; 78, 88; 27. 15; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 16. 12.

2) Sva (स्व).—The third loka; Sva was uttered and divaloka came of; where Gandharvas, Apsaras, Yakṣas, Guhyakas, and Nāgas live; intervening between Sūrya and Dhruva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 155; 21. 21; IV. 2. 26-7; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 17-41.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Sva (स्व).—Personal-ending of the second person sing. Atmanepada in the imperative mood; cf थासः से । सवाभ्यां वामौ । (thāsaḥ se | savābhyāṃ vāmau |) P.III.4.80, 91 ;

2) Sva.—A term used in the sense of स्ववर्गीय (svavargīya) (belonging to the same class or category) in the Pratisakhya works; cf स्पर्र्शः स्वे (sparrśaḥ sve) R.T.25; cf. also कान्त् स्वे (kānt sve) R. T. 1. 55;cf.also R, Pr.IV.1 ; and VI.1 ;

3) Sva.—Cognate, the same as सवर्ण (savarṇa) defined by Panini in तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् (tulyāsyaprayatnaṃ savarṇam) P. P.I.1.9; the term is found used in the Jain grammar works of Jainendra, Sakatayana and Hemacanda cf Jain. I.1.2 Sik-I. 1.2; Hema. I.1.17.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Śva (श्व):—Dog.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Sva (स्व) refers to “one’s own (property)”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “In the twelvth yuga sacred to god Bhāga (Sun), the first year is known as Dundubhi; the crops will thrive well. [...] The last year of the last yuga is Kṣaya; there will then be much rain in the land; the Brāhmins will be afflicted with fear and farmers will prosper. The Vaiśyas and Śūdras will be happy as also persons that deprive others of their property [i.e., para-sva-hṛta]. Thus have been described briefly the effects of the sixty years of Jupiter’s cycle”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Śva (श्व) refers to a “dog” (i.e., ‘being amongst dogs in dreams’), according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.21-27, while describing inauspicious dreams]—“[...] [He dreams of] the destruction of houses, palaces, beds, clothes, and seats; defeat of oneself  in battle and theft of ones things. [He] ascends or is amongst donkeys, camels, dogs (śva), jackals, and herons, vultures, and cranes. [He rides on] buffalos, owls, and crows, eats cooked meat, [wears a] red garland, and ointment for the body. [...]”

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Sva (स्व) refers to “one’s own (actions)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Fools mourn for relations experiencing the results of their own actions (svakarman-phalabhogin) [but] because of the confusion of [their] intelligence [they do] not [mourn for] themselves situated in Yama’s fangs. In this forest that is the cycle of rebirth dwelt in by Yama the serpent-king, the men of olden times, who were eternal previously, have come to an end”.

Synonyms: Nija.

2) Śva (श्व) refers to a “dog”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “A god becomes [filled] with lamenting, a dog (śva) ascends to heaven, a Brāhman might become discernible in substance [as a dog] or an insect or even a low outcaste. Like an actor here on the stage, the embodied soul continually takes on individual characters [and] he abandons others”.

Synonyms: Kukkura, Sārameya.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sva (स्व).—pron (S) Own, proper, peculiar. 2 Used as s n m Self, own soul or individuality. 3 n Property, wealth, one's own. 4 In algebra. Affirmative quantity, plus. sva occurs in comp. with numberless words, sometimes answering to Self-, but more frequently to Own. The established compounds and such as demand explanation occur in order; for such as svahasta, svagṛha, svakula, svasthala, svakuṭumba, svaśarīra, svagrāma, svanagara, svadhana, svadēha, svabhūmi, svamata, svapakṣa, svastuti, svanindā, svādhikāra &c., the student must accept this notice.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sva (स्व).—pro Own, proper. m n Self. n Proper- ty, wealth, one's own.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sva (स्व).—pron. a.

1) One's own, belonging to oneself, often serving as a reflexive pronoun; स्वनियोगमशून्यं कुरु (svaniyogamaśūnyaṃ kuru) Ś.2; प्रजाः प्रजाः स्वा इव तन्त्रयित्वा (prajāḥ prajāḥ svā iva tantrayitvā) 5.5; oft. in comp. in this sense; स्वपुत्र, स्वकलत्र, स्वद्रव्य (svaputra, svakalatra, svadravya).

2) Innate, natural, inherent, peculiar, inborn; सूर्यापाये न खलु कमलं पुष्यति स्वामभिख्याम् (sūryāpāye na khalu kamalaṃ puṣyati svāmabhikhyām) Meghadūta 82; Ś.1.19; स तस्य स्वो भावः प्रकृतिनियतत्वादकृतकः (sa tasya svo bhāvaḥ prakṛtiniyatatvādakṛtakaḥ) U. 6.14.

3) Belonging to one's own caste or tribe; शूद्रैव भार्या शूद्रस्य सा च स्वा च विशः स्मृते (śūdraiva bhāryā śūdrasya sā ca svā ca viśaḥ smṛte) Manusmṛti 3.13;5.14.

-svaḥ 1 One's own self.

2) A relative, kinsman; एनं स्वा अभि- संविशन्ति भर्ता स्वानां श्रेष्ठः पुर एता भवति (enaṃ svā abhi- saṃviśanti bhartā svānāṃ śreṣṭhaḥ pura etā bhavati) Bṛ. Up.1.3.18; (daurgatyaṃ) येन स्वैरपि मन्यन्ते जीवन्तोऽपि मृता इव (yena svairapi manyante jīvanto'pi mṛtā iva) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.1; Ms. 2.19.

3) The soul.

4) Name of Viṣṇu.

-svā A woman of one's own caste.

-svaḥ, -svam 1 Wealth, property; as in निःस्व (niḥsva) q. v.

2) (In alg.) The plus or affirmative quantity; cf. धनः (dhanaḥ); स्वशब्दोऽयमात्मीयधनज्ञातीनां प्रत्येकं वाचको न समुदायस्य (svaśabdo'yamātmīyadhanajñātīnāṃ pratyekaṃ vācako na samudāyasya) ŚB. on MS.6.7.2. The Ego.

4) Nature (svabhāvaḥ); वृत्तिर्भूतानि भूतानां चराणामचराणि च । कृता स्वेन नृणां तत्र कामाच्चोदनयापि वा (vṛttirbhūtāni bhūtānāṃ carāṇāmacarāṇi ca | kṛtā svena nṛṇāṃ tatra kāmāccodanayāpi vā) || Bhāgavata 12.7.13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Sva (स्व).—(?) , inserted by Senart's em. in Mahāvastu iii.384.3 (verse), where mss. kiṃ (kim) adhipatī rājā, metrical(ly) deficient, Senart kiṃ sva, with next line kathaṃ sva; note says sva = svid or su; read both times svid or su (q.v.)? But compare khu-ssa. Pali Dhammapada (Pali) commentary iii.231.21, same verse, kiṃ su…, 22 kathaṃ su…

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sva (स्व).—Pron. mfn.

(-svaḥ-svā-svaṃ) Own. Subst. m.

(-svaḥ) 1. A kinsman. 2. The soul. 3. Wealth. 4. Self-identity, individuality. mn.

(-svaḥ-svaṃ) 1. Wealth, property. 2. (In algebra,) Plus, or affirmative quantity. f.

(-svā) Pron. Adj. 1. Belonging to oneself. 2. Of one’s own tribe or family. 3. Natural, original. E. svan to sound, aff. ḍa; or to send or order, va aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sva (स्व).—I. pron. refl. One's own self, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 210, 13; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 85; especially as former part of comp. words, e. g. sva-gata, adj. Kept to one’s self, apart; adv. svagatam, 1. Speaking to himself, [Pañcatantra] 27, 11. 2. Aside (in theatrical language), [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 30, 8. Ii. adj., f. svā. 1. Own, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 369; 226, 14 (my); [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 27, 3 (thy); [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 16, M. M. (his). 2. Of one’s own tribe, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 13. Iii. m. 1. Soul, [Nalodya, (ed. Benary.)] 3, 30. 2. A kinsman, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 109. Iv. n. Property, wealth, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 196, 13; [Hitopadeśa] 65, 17 (hṛta-sarva-, adj. Robbed of all his property).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śvā (श्वा).—śvayati [participle] śūna (q.v.) swell. [Passive] śūyate the same.

--- OR ---

Sva (स्व).—(poss. refl.) one’s own (often °—). [masculine] [neuter] one’s self (in the obl. cases also used as a pronoun, cf. ātman); [masculine] & [feminine] ā a kinsman or relation, a man or woman of one’s own caste; [neuter] property, wealth, riches.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śva (श्व):—[from śvan] 1. śva in [compound] for 1. śvan.

2) [from śvan] 2. śva (ifc.) = śvan1 [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

3) Śvā (श्वा):—[from śvan] in [compound] for 1. śvan above.

4) Sva (स्व):—1 mf(ā)n. own, one’s own, my own, thy own, his own, her own, our own, their own etc. (referring to all three persons [according to] to context, often [in the beginning of a compound], but generally declinable like the pronominal sarva e.g. svasmai [dative case] svasmāt [ablative] [optionally in [ablative] [locative case] [singular] [nominative case] [plural] e.g. taṃ svād āsyād asṛjat, ‘he created him from his own mouth’ [Manu-smṛti i, 94]]; and always like śiva when used substantively [see below]; sometimes used loosely for ‘my’, ‘thy’, ‘his’, ‘our’ e.g. rājā bhrātaraṃ sva-gṛham preṣayām-āsa, ‘the king sent his brother to his (id est. the brother’s) house’; in the oblique cases it is used as a reflexive pronoun = ātman, e.g. svaṃ dūṣayati, ‘he defiles himself’; svaṃ nindanti, ‘they blame themselves’), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

5) m. one’s self, the Ego, the human soul, [Horace H. Wilson]

6) Name of Viṣṇu, [Mahābhārata]

7) a man of one’s own people or tribe, a kinsman, relative, relation, friend (svāḥ, ‘one’s own relations’, ‘one’s own people’), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

8) Svā (स्वा):—[from sva] a f. a woman of one’s own caste, [Mahābhārata]

9) Sva (स्व):—n. (ifc. f(ā). ) one’s self, the Ego (e.g. svaṃ ca brahma ca, ‘the Ego and Brahman’)

10) one’s own goods, property, wealth, riches (in this sense said to be also m.), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

11) the second astrological mansion, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

12) (in [algebra]) plus or the affirmative quantity, [Horace H. Wilson] (N.[Bombay edition] in the following [compound] o° own stands for one’s own.)

13) cf. [Greek] ἕ, ὅ, σφός; [Latin] se, sovos, suus; [Gothic] sik; [German] sich etc.

14) 2. sva [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] svati ([perfect tense] svām-āsa) = sva ivācarati, he acts like himself or his kindred, [Vopadeva xxi, 7.]

15) Svā (स्वा):—[from svar] b in [compound] for svar.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sva (स्व):—(svaḥ) 1. m. A kinsman; soul; self. a. Own. n. Wealth, property.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sva (स्व) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shva in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Sva (स्व) [Also spelled sv]:—(pro) one’s own, personal; self; ~[tva] (one’s) due; ~[śāsana] self-rule.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Sva (ಸ್ವ):—

1) [adjective] of or belonging to oneself.

2) [adjective] existing as such at birth; congenital.

--- OR ---

Sva (ಸ್ವ):—

1) [noun] a man belonging to one’s family; a relative; a kinsman.

2) [noun] the entity in each being regarded as immortal or spiritual part; the soul.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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