Paryaya, Paryāya: 28 definitions


Paryaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Paryay.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Paryāya (पर्याय).—(l) serial order or succession as opposed to simultaniety ; the word is used in grammar in connection with a rule which, as the objector for the sake of argument, would like to hold and would apply by succession with respect to the rule in conflict, either before it or after it i.e. alternatively; cf. पर्यायः (paryāyaḥ)

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Paryāya (पर्याय) refers to one of the eighteen jātis: rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “when the same set of karaṇas played previously are followed in all three tempos, it is the paryāyā-jāti. Example. ghodāṅ ghidiṅ gudugnoū played in the vāmaka and ūrdhvaka by the left hand should be applied in the Heroic, Marvellous and Furious Sentiments”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Paryāya (पर्याय) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).The figure paryāya has not been mentioned by Bhāmaha and Udbhaṭa. It is Rudraṭa who deals with this paryāya in his kāvyālaṃkāra (VII/42). Mammaṭa has given a simple definition of paryāya.

Cirañjīva has defined paryāya as—“paryāyaścedanekasya syādekena samanvayaḥ”.—“When many things are connected with one thing it is known as paryāya”. This definition resembles paryāya given by Jayadeva in his Candrāloka (C.L.V/93).

Example of the paryāya-alaṃkāra:—

kapole pāṇḍutvaṃ kimapi jaladhārāṃ nayanayostanau kārśyaṃ dainyaṃ vacasi hṛdi dāvānalaśikhām |
avajñāṃ prāṇeṣu prakṛtiṣu viparyāsamadhunā kimanyadvairāgyaṃ sakalaviṣayeṣvākalayate ||

“Whether the separated woman having a pale yellow colour in the cheek, tears in the eyes, feebleness in the breasts, miserable state in speech, the flame of a forest fire in the heart, disregard for life, contradiction in nature, is going to resort a different type of epathy towards all worldy objects!”

Notes: In this verse so many things like pale yellow colour in the cheek, tears in eyes etc. are connected with or found in the separated women. So it is an example of the figure of speech paryāya.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Paryāya (पर्याय):—Synonym;

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Paryāya (पर्याय) refers to a “synonym” (i.e., “a different name”), according to the Ṭīkā (commentary) on the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] Śiva, that is, Śrīnātha has entered the four sacred seats (i.e., Oḍḍiyāṇa, Jālandhara, Pūrṇagiri and Kāmarūpa) along with Umā, the goddess. [...] Thus that Siddha has attained repose in knowledge. He has acquired knowledge and is famous in the world. His body has come down into the Lineage of the Youngest. Who is he? He is said to be the sun, the husband of the dawn. The other name (paryāya-nāma) he has assumed is Mitra and so (this Siddha) is called Mitrīśa.  [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Paryāya (पर्याय) refers to “method” or “way”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[The eighteen āveṇika-dharmas (‘special attributes’)]—[...] (4). The Buddha has no notion of variety.—[...] Furthermore, ‘three times during the night and three times during the day, the Buddha considers beings with his Buddha eye’ and never allows the time of asking himself who can be converted to pass by. Considering beings impartially, he has no notion of variety. Furthermore, the Buddha has praised the good dharmas in many ways (aneka-paryāya) and criticized the bad dharmas in many ways. However, faced with good or with bad, his mind shows no increase or decrease: it is only in order to save beings that he makes distinctions. Thus he has no notion of variety. [...]”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Paryāya (पर्याय) refers to the “exposition (of the dharma)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “O Śāriputra, the Bodhisattva, the great being, Gaganagañja is coming here to see, praise, serve me, and attain this exposition of the dharma (dharma-paryāya), A Chapter of the Great Collection. Also he is coming with the assembly of all Bodhisattvas who have gathered from the worlds of the ten directions for the sake of the joy of the dharma (dharmaprītā), happiness (sukha), the source of great joy (prāmodya), the upholding of the great vehicle, and the wings of awakening (bodhipakṣika) of all Bodhisattvas”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

Jain philosophy

Source: Anekanta Jaya Pataka of Haribhadra Suri

Paryāya (पर्याय) refers to “modification”, as used in the Anekāntajayapatākā-prakaraṇa, a Śvetāmbara Jain philosophical work written by Haribhadra Sūri.—[Cf. Vol. I, P. 18, l. 4]—‘Dravya’ means, no doubt, a substance; but, according to Jainism it is not without paryāya (modification), and hence utpāda (origination) and vyaya (dissolution) in addition to dhrauvya (permanence). Same is the case with paryāya; for, it is not without (dravya) and hence dhrauvya over and above utpāda and vyaya. Thus everything that exists is utpāda-vyaya-dhrauvya-yukta. This is why reality is defined in Jainism as substance-cum-mode. This concept of reality may remind a student of biology of the concept of metabolism. For, it affords an exact parallel, since metabolism consists of two opposite processes viz. anabolism and catabolism. [...] A student of philosophy may compare this concept with the dialectic concept of Hegel—the concept which implies two opposite processes of thesis and antithesis both combined by synthesis. [...]

context information


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General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Atma Dharma: Principles of Jainism

Modification; The manifestation, i.e., functioning part or activity of an attribute is called paryaya (modification).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Paryāya (पर्याय, “mode”) means a specific or momentary state of a substance (dravya), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.26.— For example a man becomes a child in childhood, an adult in adulthood and then old etc. Accordingly, “The range of sensory knowledge (mati) and scriptural knowledge (śruta) extends to all the six substances but not in all their modes (paryāya)”.

What is meant by mode (paryāya)? That which acquires each attributes of the substance from all angles is called mode (paryāya). How many modes are there of the six substance (dravya) kinds? Each substance type has infinite modes in the past present and future.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Paryāya (पर्याय, “mode”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.38.—That which has qualities (guṇa) and modes (paryāya) is a substance (dravya). What is meant by mode (paryāya)? Modification or special activity of attributes and substances are called modes. Modes are different and separate from each other. What is another characteristic of modes? The state which remains same in a substance always is called attribute and the state which keep on changing continually and helps it to create its identity is called mode.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Paryāya (पर्याय) or Nānāparyāya refers to the “(manifold) state”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—Next he speaks about the manifold state (nānāparyāyam) of the cycle of rebirth (saṃsārasya)]—Alas! Having joined with the lowest and highest modes [of existence] (adhamottama-paryāya) in the period of [a life] time, this cycle of rebirth deceives the multitude of sentient beings. A god becomes [filled] with lamenting, a dog ascends to heaven, a Brāhman might become discernible in substance [as a dog] or an insect or even a low outcaste”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Paryāya.—(IA 18), used in relation to an allotment. (CII 1), cf. dharma-paryāya, ‘exposition of the doctrine’; a religious text. Cf. Pallānakāra (EI 23), Sanskrit Paryāyakāra, a saddler, a saddle-maker. Note: paryāya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paryāya (पर्याय).—m (S) A way, manner, method; a mode of procedure or a scheme or plan for effecting. Ex. jalamārgānēṃ jāvēṃ kiṃvā pāyavāṭēnēṃ jāvēṃ hē dōna pa0 ā- hēta; sāvakāra sōḍīnā tēvhāṃ śēta pikalēṃ mhaṇajē tujhē svādhīna karīna asā pa0 kāḍhūna mī nighūna ālōṃ; hyā dōghāñcā kajjā tumhī ēka pa0 kāḍhūna tōḍā. 2 Style, form, fashion, particular manner. Ex. tyācē bōla- ṇyācā pa0 nirāḷā hyācē bōlaṇyācā nirāḷā. 3 A course through; a single performance or essay. Ex. śāstra kēvaḷa pahilyā paryāyāsa samajatēṃ asēṃ nāhīṃ dōna tīna pa0 karāvē lāgatāta; tīna pa0 jēvhāṃ karāvē tēvhāṃ hēṃ śēta hōīla. 4 A secondary or succedaneous thing, matter, method, measure, point assumed &c. Ex. ēkādaśīcā mukhya pakṣa hōīnā tara kāṃhīṃ pa0 karāvā. 5 A stage or degree; a single step of gradual process. Ex. ēkadama dāhā kōśa cālā- yālā śakti nāhīṃ paryāyaparyāyānnīṃ cālūṃ; cāra paryāyānnīṃ brāhmaṇabhōjana jhālēṃ. Also a distinct course; a simultaneously-proceeding division of a work. Ex. ēkadāñca cāra pa0 cālavilē tēvhāṃ hajāra brāhmaṇāsa cāra ghaṭakānta dakṣiṇā aṭapalī. 6 A paltry and false excuse; a shuffling lie; a silly evasive invention. Ex. hōya kiṃvā nāhīṃ mhaṇūna sāṅgāvēṃ tō hajāra pa0 sāṅga- tō; hiśōba vicārilā asatāṃ tō anēka pa0 sāṅgatō. 7 A synonimous word. 8 Order or method; methodical disposition or course. 9 A minor and included affair or matter. Ex. tyā kāmāmmadhyēṃ pa0 puṣkaḷa āhēta. paryāyāparyāyānēṃ Alternately.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

paryāya (पर्याय).—m A way. Style. A course through. A secondary measure. A stage. A distinct course. A paltry and false excuse. A synonymous word. Order or method. A minor and included affair or matter. paryāyā- paryāyānēṃ Alternately.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paryaya (पर्यय).—

1) Revolution, lapse, expiration; कालपर्ययात् (kālaparyayāt) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.179.19; Y.3.217; Manusmṛti 1.3;11.27; युगसाहस्र- पर्ययः (yugasāhasra- paryayaḥ) (kalpaḥ) Bhāgavata 8.13.36.

2) Waste or loss (of time); मा भूत् कालस्य पर्ययः (mā bhūt kālasya paryayaḥ) Rām.1.22.12.

3) Change, alteration.

4) Inversion; confusion, irregularity.

5) Deviation from customary observances, neglect of duty.

6) Opposition.

7) Loss, destruction; पक्ष्मणोऽपि निपातेन येषां स्यात् स्कन्धपर्ययः (pakṣmaṇo'pi nipātena yeṣāṃ syāt skandhaparyayaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.15.26.

Derivable forms: paryayaḥ (पर्ययः).

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Paryāya (पर्याय).—1 Going or winding round, revolution.

2) Lapse, course, expiration (of time) कालपर्याययोगेन राजा मित्रसहोऽभवत् (kālaparyāyayogena rājā mitrasaho'bhavat) Rām.7.65.17.

3) Regular recurrence or repetition.

4) Turn, succession, due or regular order; पर्यायसेवामुत्सृज्य (paryāyasevāmutsṛjya) Kumārasambhava 2.36; Māl 9.32; Manusmṛti 4.87; Mu.3.27.

5) Method, arrangement.

6) Manner, way, method of proceeding.

7) A synonym, convertible term; पर्यायो निधनस्यायं निर्धनत्वं शरीरिणाम् (paryāyo nidhanasyāyaṃ nirdhanatvaṃ śarīriṇām) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.99; पर्वतस्य पर्याया इमे (parvatasya paryāyā ime) &c.

8) An opportunity, occasion.

9) Creation, formation, preparation, manufacture; लोकपर्याय- वृत्तान्तं प्राज्ञो जानाति नेतरः (lokaparyāya- vṛttāntaṃ prājño jānāti netaraḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.174.3.

1) Comprehensiveness.

11) A strophe of a hymn.

12) Property, quality.

13) A means, stratagem (upāya); न पर्यायोऽस्ति यत् साम्यं त्वयि कुर्युर्विशांपते (na paryāyo'sti yat sāmyaṃ tvayi kuryurviśāṃpate) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.73.7.

14) End (anta); पर्यायकाले धर्मस्य प्राप्ते कलिरजायत (paryāyakāle dharmasya prāpte kalirajāyata) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.74.12.

15) Contrariety, reverse; कालपर्यायमाज्ञाय मा स्म शोके मनः कृथाः (kālaparyāyamājñāya mā sma śoke manaḥ kṛthāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 6.2.5.

16) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech; see K. P.1; Chandr.5.18,19; S. D.733. [Note. पर्यायेण (paryāyeṇa) is often used adverbially in the sense of :

1) in turn or succession, by regular gradation, (opp. tantreṇa); पर्यायेण क्रियायामेवं दोषः । तन्त्रेण तु क्रियायां भवति क्वचित् संभवः (paryāyeṇa kriyāyāmevaṃ doṣaḥ | tantreṇa tu kriyāyāṃ bhavati kvacit saṃbhavaḥ) | ŚB. on MS.6.2.2.

2) Occassionally, now and then; पर्यायेण हि दृश्यन्ते स्वप्नाः कामं शुभाशुभाः (paryāyeṇa hi dṛśyante svapnāḥ kāmaṃ śubhāśubhāḥ) Ve.2.14].

3) Alternately; मत्सदृशं किमपि पुरूपं मां च पर्यायेण निर्वर्ण- यन्ती (matsadṛśaṃ kimapi purūpaṃ māṃ ca paryāyeṇa nirvarṇa- yantī) Daśakumāracarita 5.

Derivable forms: paryāyaḥ (पर्यायः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Paryaya (पर्यय).—(-paryaya) (m.; seemingly = paryāya, q.v., which perhaps read ?), course, regular procedure: ifc. [bahuvrīhi] in avi- parīta-paryayo (v.l. °pratyayā) śāstuḥ śāsane Mahāvastu iii.254.11 (prose), having (adopted) an unreverting course in the Teacher's teaching, said of one who has realized the śrotā- pattiphala.

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Paryāya (पर्याय).—m. (= Pali pariyāya; in these mgs. not in Sanskrit), (1) arrangement, disposition for doing anything: °yam akārṣīt…iha āgamanāya Mahāvastu i.35.7, has made ar- rangements to come here (so Pali, pariyāyaṃ karoti); brāh- maṇai(r)…paryāyo hy eṣa cintitaḥ Divyāvadāna 624.7, this procedure has been devised…; (2) way, means, virtually = upāya: ko nu khalv asyāt paryāyo yena…Mahāvastu iii.439.15, repeated 440.11, what would be a way (means) whereby…; in this sense especially dharma-paryāya, q.v.; compare dharmāṇāṃ paryāya-jñānam Bodhisattvabhūmi 214.10, and paryāya alone = dharma-p°, in Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 28.6 (verse) tam eva 'yaṃ (so with WT for KN yaṃ) icchati bhāṣaṇāya paryāyam agraṃ tada yo mayā śrutaḥ (so WT with Ḱ for KN yaṃ…śrutaṃ); here doubtless also Mahāvastu i.104.15 (verse), where mss. bodhi- sattvaparyāya-(unmetrical(ly), but MIndic °pariyāya- gives good meter and sense; Senart em. °pariṣāya)-īśvarā, lords of the manner (method; of teaching, dharma-p°) of Bo- dhisattvas; alternatively, °pariyāya = °yaṃ, acc. with deśayanti in 14, the Lords teach the way (manner, course, meaning 3) of bodhisattvas; (3) way, manner: loka- (so read with v.l., Senart loke) -paryāya-kovidu Mahāvastu ii.405.6, knowing the ways of the world; cetaḥ-(citta-)-paryāya, q.v., the ways of thought, of the mind (especially of others, as known by Buddhas); anekaparyāyeṇa, in various ways, Avadāna-śataka i.63.8 etc.; anekaparyāyeṇa asmin kāye duḥkhāni saṃkramanti Mahāvastu ii.146.3; anena paryāyeṇa, in this way, Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 107.5; 316.8; Vajracchedikā 33.8—9; in this (changed, alternative) way Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 110.8; sometimes especially anenāpi paryāyeṇa appears to mean even in that alternative, on that different sup- position, Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 76.14, and probably 82.9 (parallel to 76.14); hence (4) (alternative) kind, sort, in durūpa- (q.v.; so with mss.)-paryāyā (same verse iii.456.19 durūpam āgamya) karmā kalyāṇapāpakā (iii.456.19 karma °pakaṃ) Mahāvastu i.12.13 (verse), actions are of two alternative kinds, good and bad.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paryaya (पर्यय) or Paryyaya.—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Contrariety, opposition. 2. Irregular or inverted order. 3. Neglect of enjoined or customary observances. 4. Revolution, lapse, expiration. 5. Change, alteration. 6. Confusion. E. pari improperly, ay to go or be, aff. ac.

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Paryāya (पर्याय) or Paryyāya.—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Order, arrangement, regular and methodical disposal or succession. 2. Manner, kind. 3. Opportunity, occasion. 4. Manufacture, preparation, artificial production. 5. Property of substances, as bitter, cooling, &c. 6. Generic or specific character. 7. Comprehensiveness, aggregation. 8. The text of a vocabulary, or the order of the synonyms for any term. E. pari successively, ay to go or proceed, aff. ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paryaya (पर्यय).—i. e. pari-i + a, m. 1. Expiration (of a period), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 27. 2. Loss (of time), [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 24, 11. 3. Change, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 30. 4. Confounding, Mahābhārata 12, 449.

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Paryāya (पर्याय).—i. e. pari-i + a, m. 1. Expiration (of time), [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 4791. 2. Change, Mahābhārata 6, 3745. 3. Regular order, return, 4, 612. 4. Repetition, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 9647. 5. Succession, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1424. 6. Turn, Mahābhārata 13, 4755. 7. Manner. 8. A synonyme, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 107. 9. yeṇa, instr. Alternately.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paryaya (पर्यय).—[masculine] revolution, lapse (of time); change, mutation, inversion.

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Paryāya (पर्याय).—[masculine] turning round, revolving; course, lapse (of time); turn, succession; formula, stanza; convertible term, synonym. °— & [instrumental] successively, in turn.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paryaya (पर्यय):—[=pary-aya] [from parī] a m. revolution, lapse, expiration, waste or loss (of time), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] the time of revolution (of a planet), [Gaṇitādhyāya]

3) [v.s. ...] change, alteration, [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] inversion, irregularity, confusion with ([compound]), [Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

5) [v.s. ...] contrariety, opposition, [Horace H. Wilson]

6) [v.s. ...] deviation from enjoined or customary observances, neglect of duty, [ib.]

7) Paryāya (पर्याय):—[=pary-āya] [from parī] a m. going or turning or winding round, revolving, revolution, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

8) [v.s. ...] course, lapse, expiration of time, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Vetāla-pañcaviṃśatikā]

9) [v.s. ...] regular recurrence, repetition, succession, turn ([in the beginning of a compound] or yeṇa ind. in turn, successively, alternately; caturthe paryāye, at the fourth time), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Lāṭyāyana; Manu-smṛti] etc.

10) [v.s. ...] a regularly recurring series or formula ([especially] in the Ati-rātra ceremony), [Brāhmaṇa; ???] (-tva n.)

11) [v.s. ...] = -sūkta, [Sāyaṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] a convertible term, synonym (-tā f. -tva n.), [Pañcatantra; Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]]

13) [v.s. ...] way, manner, method of proceeding (anena pary-āyeṇa, in this manner), [Saddharma-puṇḍarīka]

14) [v.s. ...] probability, [Mahābhārata]

15) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a [particular] figure of speech, [Kāvyaprakāśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

16) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) the regular development of a thing and the end of this d°, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

17) [v.s. ...] opportunity, occasion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) [v.s. ...] formation, creation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] point of contact, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [=pary-āya] [from paryāya-vācaka > parī] b m. (with śabda) a synonym, [Mahābhārata]

21) Paryaya (पर्यय):—[=pary-aya] b pary-ayaṇa, pary-āya See under 2. parī.

22) Paryāya (पर्याय):—[=pary-āya] c etc. See under 2. parī.

23) Paryāyā (पर्याया):—[=pary-ā-√yā] (only [imperative] -yāhi, -yātam), to approach from ([ablative]), come near, [Ṛg-veda]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paryaya (पर्यय):—[parya+ya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Contrariety; neglect of enjoined ceremonies.

2) Paryāya (पर्याय):—[paryā+ya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Order; method; manner; occasion; meaning.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Paryaya (पर्यय) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Pajjaya, Pajjā, Pajjāya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Paryaya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paryaya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Paryāya (पर्याय) [Also spelled paryay]:—(nm) a synonym, synonymous/equivalent word; -[kośa] a dictionary of synonyms; ~[tva] synonymity; ~[vācaka/vācī] synonymous; •[śabda] a synonym, synonymous word; —[vijñāna] synonymy.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paryaya (ಪರ್ಯಯ):—

1) [noun] the act or an instance of surrounding, enclosing.

2) [noun] a passing away of time; lapse of time.

3) [noun] change in the common practices, fashion, vogue, mode, etc. with the passage of time.

4) [noun] a change in the condition, nature or function of (something) a changing; mutation; alteration.

5) [noun] the condition of being contrary to the usual, natural order or system.

6) [noun] the act or an instance of overstepping or breaking of established custom or customs.

7) [noun] a neglect of or failure in, duty; a being remiss; dereliction.

--- OR ---

Paryāya (ಪರ್ಯಾಯ):—

1) [noun] a wandering or going to fro.

2) [noun] the act of succeeding or coming after another in order or sequence; succession.

3) [noun] a passing away of time; lapse of time.

4) [noun] the act of periodic recurring; an instance of this; reoccurrence; recurrence.

5) [noun] the right, duty or opportunity to do something, esp. as coming to each of a number of people in regular order; one’s turn.

6) [noun] an established way of doing something including orderliness or methodical planning and carrying it out; a system.

7) [noun] a way of doing anything; mode; procedure; a method.

8) [noun] a word having the same or nearly the same meaning in one or more senses as another in the same language; a synonym.

9) [noun] the end; termination; conclusion.

10) [noun] an alternative way, method.

11) [noun] an alternative form.

12) [noun] the quality or condition of being peculiar; peculiarity.

13) [noun] an opportunity; an occasion.

14) [noun] in Uḍupi in Karnāṭaka, the system of passing the rights of worshipping Kṛṣṇa, once in two years, among the heads of eight Mādhva maṭhas (the religious monasteries).

15) [noun] the act and process of constructing; construction.

16) [noun] anything separated or distinguished from the whole or from the larger unit of which it is a part; a section; a division.

17) [noun] the act of discriminating or distinguishing differences; discrimination.

18) [noun] (rhet.) a kind of figure of speech; (write specifics).

19) [noun] (rhet.); a figure of speech in which the intention is conveyed through an alternate expression without directly refering to the intended one.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Paryāya (पर्याय):—n. 1. an equivalent; a synonym; 2. turn; succession; due or regular order;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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