Virupa, aka: Virūpā, Virūpa; 14 Definition(s)
Virupa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Virūpa (विरूप):—One of the three sons of Ambarīṣa (son of Nābhāga). He had a son named Pṛṣadaśva. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.6.1)(Source): Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
1) Virūpa (विरूप).—A son of Ambarīṣa, a king of the Solar dynasty. It is stated in Bhāgavata, Skandha 9, that Ambarīṣa had three sons called Ketumān, Śambhu and Virūpa.
2) Virūpa (विरूप).—It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 199, Stanza 88, that once Krodha (anger) changed its form and assumed the name Virūpa and conversed with Ikṣvāku.
3) Virūpa (विरूप).—An asura (demon) Śrī Kṛṣṇa killed this asura. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭha, Chapter 38).
4) Virūpa (विरूप).—One of the eight sons of Aṅgiras. The eight sons of Aṅgiras were Virūpa, Bṛhaspati, Utathya, Payasya, Śānti, Ghora, Saṃvarta and Sudhanvā. These sons are called the Vāruṇas or the Āgneyas. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanzas 130-131).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Virūpa (विरूप).—A son of Ambarīṣa, and father of Pṛṣadaśva.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 6. 1; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 6; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 6. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 2. 7-8.
1b) A son of Kṛṣṇa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 90. 34.
1c) A mantrakṛt of the Angirasa branch.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 145. 103; Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 100.
1d) Not to have matrimonial connections with Angiras and Rathītaras.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 196. 38.
1e) The formless form attained by a mukta.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 77.
2) Virūpā (विरूपा).—Came out of the face of Mahādeva.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 5.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Virūpa (विरूप):—One of the persons joining Śiva during the preparations of the war between Śankhacūḍa and the Devas, according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (9.20.22-53). All persons attending were remained seated on beautiful aerial cars, built of jewels and gems. The war was initiated by Puṣpadanta (messenger of Śiva) who was ordered to restore the rights of the Devas. .(Source): Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Virūpa (विरूप, “indifferent”) refers to a term to be used by women who is angered addressing their beloved, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “he who has fresh wounds received from a another woman and is proud of it and remains silent is called ‘indifferent’ (virūpa)”.
2) Virūpā (विरूप, “unnatural”) refers to one of the “three kinds of impersonation” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 34. Accordingly, “when a boy takes up the role of an old man or an old man takes up that of a boy and betrays his own nature in acting, the representation is called ‘unnatural’ (virūpā)” and “human characters as they are represented on the stage fall into three classes: natural (anurūpā), unnatural (virūpā) and imitative (rūpānusāriṇī)”.(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Virūpa (विरूप) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Virūpanṛsiṃha or Virūpanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.
The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.(Source): Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Samkhya (school of philosophy)
Virūpa (विरूप, “heterogeneous”) refers to one of the two types of pariṇāma (change) according to the Sāṃkhya theory of evolution. It is also known as visadṛśa. Virūpa-pariṇāma begins when prakṛti (matter) and puruṣa (consciousness) come in contact with each other resulting in the cessation of the equipoise state of the guṇas and beginning of the establishment of dominance of one guṇa over the other two guṇas.(Source): Wisdom Library: Sāṃkhya philosophy
Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).
Itihasa (narrative history)
Virūpa (विरूप) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.9.14) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Virūpa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
(Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Virūpa is the name of a mahāsiddha, of which eighty-four in total are recognized in Vajrayāna (tantric buddhism). His title is “dākini-master”. He lived somewhere between the 8th and the 12th century AD.
These mahāsiddhas (eg., Virūpa) are defined according to the Abhayadatta Sri (possibly Abhayākaragupta) tradition. Its textual origin traces to the 11th century caturāsiti-siddha-pravṛtti, or “the lives of the eighty-four siddhas”, of which only Tibetan translations remains. Virūpa (and other Mahāsiddhas) are the ancient propounders of the textual tradition of tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism.(Source): Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayana
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Languages of India and abroad
virūpa : (adj.) deformed; ugly.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Virūpa, (adj.) (vi+rūpa) deformed, unsightly, ugly Sn. 50; J. I, 47; IV, 379; VI, 31, 114; PvA. 24, 32, 47; Sdhp. 85.
at Sn. 50 virūpa is taken as “various” by Bdhgh (SnA 99), and virūpa-rūpa expld as vividha-rūpa, i.e. diversity, variety. So also the Niddesa. (Page 635)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
virūpa (विरूप).—a (S) Of ill-looking features or form; ugly or deformed. 2 Dissimilar.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
virūpa (विरूप).—a Ugly. Dissimilar.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Virūpa (विरूप).—a. (-pā or -pī f.)
1) Deformed, ugly, misshapen, disfigured; विरूपं रूपवन्तं वा पुमानित्येव भुञ्जते (virūpaṃ rūpavantaṃ vā pumānityeva bhuñjate) Pt.1.143.
2) Unnatural, monstrous.
3) Multiform, diverse; प्रकृति- सरूपं विरूपं च (prakṛti- sarūpaṃ virūpaṃ ca) Sāṅ. K.8.
4) Less by one.
-paḥ 1 Jaundice.
2) Name of Śiva.
-pā 1 Alhagi Maurorum (Mar. dhamāsā).
2) Aconitum Ferox (Mar. ativiṣa).
-pam 1 Deformity, ugliness.
2) Variety of form, nature, or character.(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 15 books and stories containing Virupa, Virūpā or Virūpa. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)
Part 4 - More About the Ancient Indian Theory and Practice of Drama < [Introduction, Part 2]
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 8 - Description of the Hell (naraka) < [Section 5 - Umā-Saṃhitā]
Chapter 33 - March of The Victorious Lord Śiva < [Section 2.5 - Rudra-saṃhitā (5): Yuddha-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 35 - Śiva-sahasranāma: the thousand names of Śiva < [Section 4 - Koṭirudra-Saṃhitā]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter CXXXVIII - Genealogy of royal princes (solar race) < [Brihaspati (Nitisara) Samhita]
The Mahabharata - Second Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)