Virupa, Virūpā, Virūpa: 20 definitions

Introduction

Virupa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Virūpa (विरूप):—One of the three sons of Ambarīṣa (son of Nābhāga). He had a son named Pṛṣadaśva. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.6.1)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Virūpa (विरूप).—A son of Ambarīṣa, a king of the Solar dynasty. It is stated in Bhāgavata, Skandha 9, that Ambarīṣa had three sons called Ketumān, Śambhu and Virūpa.

2) Virūpa (विरूप).—It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 199, Stanza 88, that once Krodha (anger) changed its form and assumed the name Virūpa and conversed with Ikṣvāku.

3) Virūpa (विरूप).—An asura (demon) Śrī Kṛṣṇa killed this asura. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭha, Chapter 38).

4) Virūpa (विरूप).—One of the eight sons of Aṅgiras. The eight sons of Aṅgiras were Virūpa, Bṛhaspati, Utathya, Payasya, Śānti, Ghora, Saṃvarta and Sudhanvā. These sons are called the Vāruṇas or the Āgneyas. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanzas 130-131).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Virūpa (विरूप).—A son of Ambarīṣa, and father of Pṛṣadaśva.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 6. 1; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 6; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 6. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 2. 7-8.

1b) A son of Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 90. 34.

1c) A mantrakṛt of the Angirasa branch.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 145. 103; Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 100.

1d) Not to have matrimonial connections with Angiras and Rathītaras.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 196. 38.

1e) The formless form attained by a mukta.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 77.

2) Virūpā (विरूपा).—Came out of the face of Mahādeva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 5.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Virūpa (विरूप) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.9.14) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Virūpa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Virūpa (विरूप):—One of the persons joining Śiva during the preparations of the war between Śankhacūḍa and the Devas, according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (9.20.22-53). All persons attending were remained seated on beautiful aerial cars, built of jewels and gems. The war was initiated by Puṣpadanta (messenger of Śiva) who was ordered to restore the rights of the Devas. .

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Virūpa (विरूप, “indifferent”) refers to a term to be used by women who is angered addressing their beloved, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “he who has fresh wounds received from a another woman and is proud of it and remains silent is called ‘indifferent’ (virūpa)”.

2) Virūpā (विरूप, “unnatural”) refers to one of the “three kinds of impersonation” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 34. Accordingly, “when a boy takes up the role of an old man or an old man takes up that of a boy and betrays his own nature in acting, the representation is called ‘unnatural’ (virūpā)” and “human characters as they are represented on the stage fall into three classes: natural (anurūpā), unnatural (virūpā) and imitative (rūpānusāriṇī)”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Virūpa (विरूप) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Virūpanṛsiṃha or Virūpanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Sāṃkhya philosophy

Virūpa (विरूप, “heterogeneous”) refers to one of the two types of pariṇāma (change) according to the Sāṃkhya theory of evolution. It is also known as visadṛśa. Virūpa-pariṇāma begins when prakṛti (matter) and puruṣa (consciousness) come in contact with each other resulting in the cessation of the equipoise state of the guṇas and beginning of the establishment of dominance of one guṇa over the other two guṇas.

context information

Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Virūpā (विरूपा) is another name for Dhanvayāsa, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 4.53-55 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Virūpā and Dhanvayāsa, there are a total of fourteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayana

Virūpa is the name of a mahāsiddha, of which eighty-four in total are recognized in Vajrayāna (tantric buddhism). His title is “dākini-master”. He lived somewhere between the 8th and the 12th century AD.

These mahāsiddhas (eg., Virūpa) are defined according to the Abhayadatta Sri (possibly Abhayākaragupta) tradition. Its textual origin traces to the 11th century caturāsiti-siddha-pravṛtti, or “the lives of the eighty-four siddhas”, of which only Tibetan translations remains. Virūpa (and other Mahāsiddhas) are the ancient propounders of the textual tradition of tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

virūpa : (adj.) deformed; ugly.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Virūpa, (adj.) (vi+rūpa) deformed, unsightly, ugly Sn. 50; J. I, 47; IV, 379; VI, 31, 114; PvA. 24, 32, 47; Sdhp. 85.

at Sn. 50 virūpa is taken as “various” by Bdhgh (SnA 99), and virūpa-rūpa explained as vividha-rūpa, i.e. diversity, variety. So also the Niddesa. (Page 635)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

virūpa (विरूप).—a (S) Of ill-looking features or form; ugly or deformed. 2 Dissimilar.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

virūpa (विरूप).—a Ugly. Dissimilar.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Virūpa (विरूप).—a. (- or - f.)

1) Deformed, ugly, misshapen, disfigured; विरूपं रूपवन्तं वा पुमानित्येव भुञ्जते (virūpaṃ rūpavantaṃ vā pumānityeva bhuñjate) Pt.1.143.

2) Unnatural, monstrous.

3) Multiform, diverse; प्रकृति- सरूपं विरूपं च (prakṛti- sarūpaṃ virūpaṃ ca) Sāṅ. K.8.

4) Less by one.

-paḥ 1 Jaundice.

2) Name of Śiva.

-pā 1 Alhagi Maurorum (Mar. dhamāsā).

2) Aconitum Ferox (Mar. ativiṣa).

-pam 1 Deformity, ugliness.

2) Variety of form, nature, or character.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Virūpa (विरूप).—name of a householder's son: Avadāna-śataka ii.174.3 ff.

--- OR ---

Virūpā (विरूपा).—name of a daughter of King Prasenajit: Avadāna-śataka ii.52.11 ff. Cf. Gaṅgarasthā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virūpa (विरूप).—mfn.

(-paḥ-pā or -pī-paṃ) 1. Deformed, monstrous. 2. Unusual in form or nature, unnatural. n.

(-paṃ) 1. Irregular or monstrous shape. 2. Difference of nature or character. f.

(-pā) The wife of Yama. E. vi implying variety, and rūpa form.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virūpa (विरूप).—I. adj. 1. deformed, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 159. 2. unusual. 3. wicked, [Pañcatantra] 213, 23. Ii. n. 1. difference of nature. 2. deformity, [Cāṇakya] 73 in Berl. Monatsb. 1864, 411; monstrous shape. Iii. f. , the wife of Yama.

Virūpa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms vi and rūpa (रूप).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virūpa (विरूप).—[adjective] many-coloured, multiform, manifold, various, different from (—°); also = seq. Abstr. † [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Virūpa (विरूप):—[=vi-rūpa] [from vi] a See sub voce

2) [=vi-rūpa] b mf(ā)n. many-coloured, variegated, multiform, manifold, various, [Ṛg-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; Kauśika-sūtra]

3) [v.s. ...] varied, altered, changed, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] different, [Pāṇini], [vArttika] (with ekārtha, ‘different in form but the same in meaning’; ifc. ‘different from’ [Sāṃkhyakārikā])

5) [v.s. ...] deformed, misshapen, ugly, monstrous, unnatural, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] less by one, minus one, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) [v.s. ...] m. jaundice, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata] (cf. virūpa-cakṣus and virūpākṣa)

9) [v.s. ...] Name of an Asura, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

10) [v.s. ...] of a son of the demon Parivarta, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] of an Āṅgirasa (author of [Ṛg-veda viii, 43; 44; 75]; father of Pṛṣad-aśva and son of Ambarīṣa; [plural] the family of the Virūpas), [Ṛg-veda; Mahābhārata; Purāṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] of a son of Kṛṣṇa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

13) [v.s. ...] of one of the descendants of Manu Vaivasvata, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

14) [v.s. ...] of a prince, [Horace H. Wilson]

15) [v.s. ...] of two teachers, [Buddhist literature]

16) Virūpā (विरूपा):—[=vi-rūpā] [from vi-rūpa] f. Alhagi Maurorum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] Aconitum Ferox, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) [v.s. ...] Name of the wife of Yama, [Horace H. Wilson]

19) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists) Name of a Tantra deity, [Kālacakra]

20) Virūpa (विरूप):—[=vi-rūpa] n. deformity, irregular or monstrous shape, [Horace H. Wilson]

21) [v.s. ...] difference of form, variety of nature or character, [ib.]

22) [v.s. ...] the root of Piper Longum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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