Viparyasa, Viparyāsa: 13 definitions



Viparyasa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास) refers to “misapprehension”, as opposed to niścaya, “correct apprehension”; both mentioned as characteristics of intelligence (buddhi) in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.26.30.—The study to determine whether one's identity is spiritual or material begins in doubt. When one is able to analyze his actual position, the false identification with the body is detected. This is viparyāsa. When false identification is detected, then real identification can be understood. Real understanding is described here as niścaya, or proved experimental knowledge.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Viparyasa in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास) refers to “four mistakes” regarding the four “foundations of mindfulness” (smṛtyupasthāna), forming part of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (bodhipākṣika), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI.—Accordingly, “The foundation of mindfulness (smṛtyupasthāna) on the body (kāya) and the foundations of mindfulness on feeling (vedanā), mind (citta) and dharmas are the four foundations of mindfulness... The worldly person (pṛthagjana), who has not yet entered into the Path, is deluded about these four things and produces four mistakes (viparyāsa): 1) the mistake that consists of taking what is impure to be pure; 2) the mistake that consists of taking what is suffering to be happy; 3) the mistake that consists of taking what is impermanent to be permanent; 4) the mistake that consists of taking what is not a ‘self’ to be a ‘self’”.

In order to destroy these four mistakes (viparyāsa), the Buddha preached the four foundations of mindfulness:

  1. to destroy the mistake about purity (śuciviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on the body (kāya-smṛtyupasthāna);
  2. to destroy the mistake on happiness (sukhaviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on feelings (vedanā-smṛtyupasthāna);
  3. to destroy the mistake on permanence (nityaviparyāsa), he preaches mindfulness on the mind (citta-smṛtyupasthāna);
  4. to destroy the mistake on the self (ātmaviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on dharmas (dharma-smṛtyupasthāna).

It is for this reason that he preached four, no more and no less.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Viparyasa in Jainism glossary
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—What is the meaning of viparyāsa? Wrong imagination or thinking is called viparyāsa. according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.32, “Owing to lack of discrimination between the real and the unreal, wrong knowledge is whimsical as that of a lunatic”.

How many type of viparyāsa are there? There are three types namely: i. cause; ii. nature and iii. identical-cum-different.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viparyasa in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—m S Contrariety or oppositeness. 2 Reverse &c. It signifies as detailed above under viparyaya. 3 Change or alteration, especially deterioration.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—m Contrariety; reverse; dete- rioration. Misrepresentation.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viparyasa in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—

1) Change; कथं नाम विपर्यासाद्धुन्धुमारत्वमागतः (kathaṃ nāma viparyāsāddhundhumāratvamāgataḥ) Mb.3.21.6.; contrariety, reverse; विपर्यासं यातो घनविरल- भावः क्षितिरुहाम् (viparyāsaṃ yāto ghanavirala- bhāvaḥ kṣitiruhām) U.2.27.

2) Adverseness, unfavourableness; as in दैवविपर्यासात् (daivaviparyāsāt).

3) Interchange, exchange; प्रवहणविपर्यासेनागता (pravahaṇaviparyāsenāgatā) Mk.8.

4) An error, a mistake.

5) Expiration, lapse (of time).

6) Deterioration, death.

Derivable forms: viparyāsaḥ (विपर्यासः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास) or Viparyyāsa.—m.

(-saḥ) 1. Contrariety, opposition. 2. Reverse. 3. Investing imaginary things with real attributes, imagining what is unreal or false to be real or true. E. vi and pari, before as to be, aff. ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—i. e. vi-pari-as + a, m. 1. Reverse (cf. the two last), [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 96, 15; interchange, ib. 47, 6 (ghana-virala-bhāvaḥ kṣitiruhāṃ yāto viparyāsam, As for the trees, their state of being close together, or scanty, has interchanged, i. e. where there were before plenty of trees, there are at present few, and vice versā). 2. Error, mistake, Bhāṣāp. 136; [Pañcatantra] 129, 5. 3. Investing imaginary things with real attributes.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—[masculine] upsetting (of a carriage), transposition, expiration (of a time); inversion etc. = viparyaya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viparyāsa (विपर्यास):—[=vi-paryāsa] [from vipary-as] m. overturning, overthrow, upsetting (of a car), [Gṛhya-sūtra]

2) [v.s. ...] transposition, transportation, [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] expiration, lapse (of time), [Mahābhārata]

4) [v.s. ...] exchange, inversion, change, interchange, [???; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] reverse, contrariety, opposition, opposite of (e.g. stuti-v, the opposite of praise id est. blame), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] change for the worse, deterioration, [Mahābhārata]

7) [v.s. ...] death, [Rāmāyaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] perverseness, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

9) [v.s. ...] error, mistake, delusion, imagining what is unreal or false to be real or true, [Kāvya literature; Bhāṣāpariccheda; Pañcatantra]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास):—[vi-paryā+sa] < [vi-paryāsa] (saḥ) 1. m. Idem; reverse.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास):—(von 2. as mit vipari) m. = viparyaya [Amarakoṣa 3, 3, 33.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1501.] [Halāyudha 4, 44.] = prapañca [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 5, 29.]

1) das Umwerfen: eines Wagens [GOBH. 2, 4, 3.] [Pāraskara’s Gṛhyasūtrāṇi 1, 10.] —

2) Umstellung, Versetzung an einen andern Ort: meroḥ [Mahābhārata 7, 8899.] —

3) Ablauf: yugasya [Mahābhārata 7, 424.] —

4) Vertauschung, Verkehrung, Wechsel; umgekehrtes Verhältniss, Gegentheil: karma [Śāṅkhāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 5, 10, 13.] ṛcām [13, 1, 6.] [Aśvalāyana’s Śrautasūtrāni 1, 12, 31. 4, 8, 11.] [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 5, 8, 17. 9, 5, 11. 19, 1, 17.] ṛtusātmya [Suśruta 1, 253, 2.] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 3, 36, Vārttika von Kātyāyana. 5.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 69.] [Weber’s Indische Studien 10, 421.] viparyāsaṃ prāp [Mahābhārata 3, 13233.] viparyāsaṃ yāto ghataviralabhāvaḥ kṣitiruhām [UTTARAR. 35, 12 (47, 6).] daśā [75, 5 (96, 15).] na ca kuryādviparyāsaṃ vāsasoḥ [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 34, 54.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 20, 79.] nāma [Mahābhārata 3, 13486.] śītoṣṇa [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 46, 39. 97, 4.] [Harivaṃśa 1451.] rūpasya [Rāmāyaṇa 7, 2, 22.] gharmavṛddhiḥ kṣapāhrāsa udaggatau . dakṣiṇetau viparyāsaḥ das umgekehrte Verhältniss [WEBER, Jyotiṣa 29.] [SĀṂKHYAK. 19. 45.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 41, 13.] pāda [Kathāsaritsāgara 98, 54.] ātma (= anyathābhāva Comm.) [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 7, 2. 25.] karotyato viparyāsam er thut das Gegentheil davon [7, 41. 11, 3, 18.] strīpuṃsayorviparyāsaceṣṭitam [Sāhityadarpana 507.] stuti so v. a. Tadel [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 633.] —

5) ein Umschlagen zum Schlimmern, schlimme Wendung: bhāga (wohl bhāgya zu lesen; vgl. u. viparyaya

2) d) [Mahābhārata 7, 1352.] —

6) Unglücksfall so v. a. Tod (= dehaviyoga Comm.) [Rāmāyaṇa 7, 108, 9.] —

7) Verkehrtheit [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 635.] mati eine falsche —, irrige Meinung, Irrthum [3, 42.] [Pañcatantra 129, 5.] —

7) eine im Geiste vorgehende Verwechselung: mukhaduḥkha [Spr. 5242.] eine verkehrte Ansicht, falsche Auffassung, Irrthum [BHĀṢĀPAR. 126.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 26, 30.] — viparyāsam absol. s. u. 2. as mit vipari .

--- OR ---

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास):—

7) [?Z. 2 Spr. 5242] gehört zu 4); vgl. [2te Aufl. 7073.]

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viparyasa in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास):—(nm) upsetting, disarray; contrariety; interchange; peripeteia/reversal (of the situation).

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