Viparyasa, Viparyāsa: 10 definitions

Introduction

Viparyasa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास) refers to “misapprehension”, as opposed to niścaya, “correct apprehension”; both mentioned as characteristics of intelligence (buddhi) in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.26.30.—The study to determine whether one's identity is spiritual or material begins in doubt. When one is able to analyze his actual position, the false identification with the body is detected. This is viparyāsa. When false identification is detected, then real identification can be understood. Real understanding is described here as niścaya, or proved experimental knowledge.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous (V) next»] — Viparyasa in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास) refers to “four mistakes” regarding the four “foundations of mindfulness” (smṛtyupasthāna), forming part of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (bodhipākṣika), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI.—Accordingly, “The foundation of mindfulness (smṛtyupasthāna) on the body (kāya) and the foundations of mindfulness on feeling (vedanā), mind (citta) and dharmas are the four foundations of mindfulness... The worldly person (pṛthagjana), who has not yet entered into the Path, is deluded about these four things and produces four mistakes (viparyāsa): 1) the mistake that consists of taking what is impure to be pure; 2) the mistake that consists of taking what is suffering to be happy; 3) the mistake that consists of taking what is impermanent to be permanent; 4) the mistake that consists of taking what is not a ‘self’ to be a ‘self’”.

In order to destroy these four mistakes (viparyāsa), the Buddha preached the four foundations of mindfulness:

  1. to destroy the mistake about purity (śuciviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on the body (kāya-smṛtyupasthāna);
  2. to destroy the mistake on happiness (sukhaviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on feelings (vedanā-smṛtyupasthāna);
  3. to destroy the mistake on permanence (nityaviparyāsa), he preaches mindfulness on the mind (citta-smṛtyupasthāna);
  4. to destroy the mistake on the self (ātmaviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on dharmas (dharma-smṛtyupasthāna).

It is for this reason that he preached four, no more and no less.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (V) next»] — Viparyasa in Jainism glossary
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—What is the meaning of viparyāsa? Wrong imagination or thinking is called viparyāsa. according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.32, “Owing to lack of discrimination between the real and the unreal, wrong knowledge is whimsical as that of a lunatic”.

How many type of viparyāsa are there? There are three types namely: i. cause; ii. nature and iii. identical-cum-different.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (V) next»] — Viparyasa in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—m S Contrariety or oppositeness. 2 Reverse &c. It signifies as detailed above under viparyaya. 3 Change or alteration, especially deterioration.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—m Contrariety; reverse; dete- rioration. Misrepresentation.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (V) next»] — Viparyasa in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—

1) Change; कथं नाम विपर्यासाद्धुन्धुमारत्वमागतः (kathaṃ nāma viparyāsāddhundhumāratvamāgataḥ) Mb.3.21.6.; contrariety, reverse; विपर्यासं यातो घनविरल- भावः क्षितिरुहाम् (viparyāsaṃ yāto ghanavirala- bhāvaḥ kṣitiruhām) U.2.27.

2) Adverseness, unfavourableness; as in दैवविपर्यासात् (daivaviparyāsāt).

3) Interchange, exchange; प्रवहणविपर्यासेनागता (pravahaṇaviparyāsenāgatā) Mk.8.

4) An error, a mistake.

5) Expiration, lapse (of time).

6) Deterioration, death.

Derivable forms: viparyāsaḥ (विपर्यासः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास) or Viparyyāsa.—m.

(-saḥ) 1. Contrariety, opposition. 2. Reverse. 3. Investing imaginary things with real attributes, imagining what is unreal or false to be real or true. E. vi and pari, before as to be, aff. ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—[masculine] upsetting (of a carriage), transposition, expiration (of a time); inversion etc. = viparyaya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viparyāsa (विपर्यास):—[=vi-paryāsa] [from vipary-as] m. overturning, overthrow, upsetting (of a car), [Gṛhya-sūtra]

2) [v.s. ...] transposition, transportation, [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] expiration, lapse (of time), [Mahābhārata]

4) [v.s. ...] exchange, inversion, change, interchange, [???; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] reverse, contrariety, opposition, opposite of (e.g. stuti-v, the opposite of praise id est. blame), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] change for the worse, deterioration, [Mahābhārata]

7) [v.s. ...] death, [Rāmāyaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] perverseness, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

9) [v.s. ...] error, mistake, delusion, imagining what is unreal or false to be real or true, [Kāvya literature; Bhāṣāpariccheda; Pañcatantra]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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