Viparyasa, aka: Viparyāsa; 7 Definition(s)


Viparyasa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास) refers to “misapprehension”, as opposed to niścaya, “correct apprehension”; both mentioned as characteristics of intelligence (buddhi) in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.26.30.—The study to determine whether one's identity is spiritual or material begins in doubt. When one is able to analyze his actual position, the false identification with the body is detected. This is viparyāsa. When false identification is detected, then real identification can be understood. Real understanding is described here as niścaya, or proved experimental knowledge.

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Viparyasa in Mahayana glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास) refers to “four mistakes” regarding the four “foundations of mindfulness” (smṛtyupasthāna), forming part of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (bodhipākṣika), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI.—Accordingly, “The foundation of mindfulness (smṛtyupasthāna) on the body (kāya) and the foundations of mindfulness on feeling (vedanā), mind (citta) and dharmas are the four foundations of mindfulness... The worldly person (pṛthagjana), who has not yet entered into the Path, is deluded about these four things and produces four mistakes (viparyāsa): 1) the mistake that consists of taking what is impure to be pure; 2) the mistake that consists of taking what is suffering to be happy; 3) the mistake that consists of taking what is impermanent to be permanent; 4) the mistake that consists of taking what is not a ‘self’ to be a ‘self’”.

In order to destroy these four mistakes (viparyāsa), the Buddha preached the four foundations of mindfulness:

  1. to destroy the mistake about purity (śuciviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on the body (kāya-smṛtyupasthāna);
  2. to destroy the mistake on happiness (sukhaviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on feelings (vedanā-smṛtyupasthāna);
  3. to destroy the mistake on permanence (nityaviparyāsa), he preaches mindfulness on the mind (citta-smṛtyupasthāna);
  4. to destroy the mistake on the self (ātmaviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on dharmas (dharma-smṛtyupasthāna).

It is for this reason that he preached four, no more and no less.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Viparyasa in Jainism glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—What is the meaning of viparyāsa? Wrong imagination or thinking is called viparyāsa. according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.32, “Owing to lack of discrimination between the real and the unreal, wrong knowledge is whimsical as that of a lunatic”.

How many type of viparyāsa are there? There are three types namely: i. cause; ii. nature and iii. identical-cum-different.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Viparyasa in Marathi glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—m S Contrariety or oppositeness. 2 Reverse &c. It signifies as detailed above under viparyaya. 3 Change or alteration, especially deterioration.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—m Contrariety; reverse; dete- rioration. Misrepresentation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viparyasa in Sanskrit glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास).—

1) Change; कथं नाम विपर्यासाद्धुन्धुमारत्वमागतः (kathaṃ nāma viparyāsāddhundhumāratvamāgataḥ) Mb.3.21.6.; contrariety, reverse; विपर्यासं यातो घनविरल- भावः क्षितिरुहाम् (viparyāsaṃ yāto ghanavirala- bhāvaḥ kṣitiruhām) U.2.27.

2) Adverseness, unfavourableness; as in दैवविपर्यासात् (daivaviparyāsāt).

3) Interchange, exchange; प्रवहणविपर्यासेनागता (pravahaṇaviparyāsenāgatā) Mk.8.

4) An error, a mistake.

5) Expiration, lapse (of time).

6) Deterioration, death.

Derivable forms: viparyāsaḥ (विपर्यासः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viparyāsa (विपर्यास) or Viparyyāsa.—m.

(-saḥ) 1. Contrariety, opposition. 2. Reverse. 3. Investing imaginary things with real attributes, imagining what is unreal or false to be real or true. E. vi and pari, before as to be, aff. ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 16 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Nityaviparyāsa (नित्यविपर्यास) refers to the “mistake on permanence” and represents one of the ...
Ātmaviparyāsa (आत्मविपर्यास) refers to the “mistake on the self” and represents one of the “fou...
Śuciviparyāsa (शुचिविपर्यास) refers to the “mistake about purity” and represents one of the “fo...
Sukhaviparyāsa (सुखविपर्यास) refers to the “mistake on happiness” and represents one of the “fo...
Mativiparyāsa (मतिविपर्यास).—1) delusion, mental illusion, confusion of mind; स्वप्नो नु माया न...
Viparyāsopamā (विपर्यासोपमा).—an inverted comparison.Viparyāsopamā is a Sanskrit compound consi...
Kathāviparyāsa (कथाविपर्यास).—changing the course of a story. Derivable forms: kathāviparyāsaḥ ...
Daśāviparyāsa (दशाविपर्यास).—ill-luck, misfortune.Derivable forms: daśāviparyāsaḥ (दशाविपर्यासः...
Saṃjñā (संज्ञा) or Daśasaṃjñā refers to the “ten concepts”, according to the 2nd century Mahāpr...
Niścaya (निश्चय).—m. (-yaḥ) 1. Certainty, ascertainment, positive, conclusion. 2. A fixed inten...
Kumati (कुमति).—What is false mind-based knowledge called? It is called kumati or erroneous min...
Vipallāsa, (cp. Sk. viparyāsa, vi+pari+as (to throw). The diaeretic P. form (founded on Sk. is ...
Viprayāsa (विप्रयास).—m. (a distortion of Sanskrit viparyāsa, = Pali vipariyāsa, °yesa, vipallā...
Upameyopamā (उपमेयोपमा).—f. (-mā) The resemblance of any object to that compared with it, as of...
Vipallasa Sutta
Vipallāsa, (cp. Sk. viparyāsa, vi+pari+as (to throw). The diaeretic P. form (founded on Sk. is ...

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