Viparita, Viparīta: 23 definitions

Introduction:

Viparita means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Viprit.

In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Viparita in Yoga glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Viparīta (विपरीत) is a Sanskrit word referring to “inverted”. It is used in Yoga.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Viparīta (विपरीत).—In the opposite or reverse way; cf. विपरीताच्चेति वक्तव्यम् । पारावारीणः (viparītācceti vaktavyam | pārāvārīṇaḥ) M.Bh. on P.IV.2.93 Vart. 2;

2) Viparīta.—Change of ऋ () into इ (i), seen sometimes in Vedic Literature when that ऋ () is preceded or followed by a palatal letter; e.g. श्रृङगे (śrṛṅage) into शिङ्गे (śiṅge) (Ṛk. Saṃh. V-2.9) बिभृयात् (bibhṛyāt) into बिभियात् (bibhiyāt) (Ṛk.Saṃh. x.x.9) विचृत (vicṛta) into विचित्त (vicitta) Ṛg. Veda II.27.16; cf. अनन्तरे तद्विपरीतमाहुस्तालव्ये श्रृङगे बिभृयाद्विचृत्ताः (anantare tadviparītamāhustālavye śrṛṅage bibhṛyādvicṛttāḥ) R.Pr.XIV.17.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Viparīta (विपरीत):—[viparītaṃ] Antagonistic

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Viparīta (विपरीत) refers to “reverse (action)”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “Kuṇdalī (the Coiled One) is the pure moonlight (of consciousness). She is reverse (viparīta) action. Then, in a moment, (one experiences) the bliss and upsurge (udbhava) of (the vital) Fire and Wind. Then one attains (the energy of consciousness) which destroys the sins of (all true) yogis and, in the seventh birth, (the Karma) of (all one's previous) births. Even the foolishness (of thoughtless action) is completely eradicated”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Viparīta (विपरीत) refers to “inappropriate” or “unfavourable”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The dark spots, also known as ketus, the sons of Rāhu are Tāmasa, Kīlaka and the like, and are 33 in number. How they affect the earth depends upon their color, position and shape. [...] The trees will fail to yield in their appropriate seasons [i.e., ṛtu-viparīta]; birds and animals will appear to be burning; there will be an appearance of false fire all round; and lightning and earthquake will afflict mankind”.

2) Viparīta (विपरीत) refers to “adversity”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 7).—Accordingly, “If Mercury (Budha) should pass through the constellations of Svāti, Bharaṇi, Roniṇi and Kṛttikā, sacred respectively to Vāyu, to Yama, to Pitāmaha and to Agni, his course is technically known as Prākṛta. [...] When Mercury is in his Prākṛta course, there will be increase of health, of rain, of crops and there will be prosperity in the land. If he should be either in his Saṃkṣipta or Miśra course, mankind will be partly happy and partly miserable. When in his remaining four courses, Mercury brings on adversity [i.e., viparīta]”.

3) Viparīta (विपरीत) refers to “opposite”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11).—Accordingly, “Generally, if the luminous body or comet be small, clear, glossy, straight, transient, white and visible either immediately after their appearance or some time afterwards, there will be health and happiness in the land. If it be the opposite of these [i.e., ukta-viparīta-rūpa], or of the shape of the rainbow or with two or three tails, mankind will not be happy”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Viparīta (विपरीत) refers to “contrary” (e.g., ‘replying to a wrong statement with the contrary argument’), according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī 2.132.—Accordingly, “And therefore, [to the objection:] ‘the external [object] is established through mere common knowledge,’ [one should answer] that it is rather the contrary (viparītapratyuta viparītam etat)”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Viparīta (विपरीत) refers to the “opposite (result)” (i.e. ‘unfavorable things’), according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “[...] In his dominion there shall be no devastations such as droughts etc. If the King, in the absence of [such a capable] one, has a different (i.e. ordinary) Guru or Court Officiant [at his side], that Supporter of the Earth shall get the opposite (viparīta) [result] (i.e. unfavorable things), there is no doubt about that”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

1) Viparīta (विपरीत) refers to an aspect of mithyātva (false belief) as defined by Amitagati in his 11th century Śrāvakācāra. Accordingly, viparīta refers to the view that what is true is false and vice versa. Mithyātva refers to the direct opposite of samyaktva, and is defined by Hemacandra in his 12th century Yogaśāstra verse 2.17 as belief in false divinities, false gurus, and false scriptures.

2) Viparīta (विपरीत) or Arthāntara refers to “representation of something in a form other than its real form” represents a division of untruth (asatya) according to Amitagati’s classification in his 11th-century Śrāvakācāra verses (6.49-54). Examples: describing a cow as a horse or saying, as do the Buddhists, that the ātman is non-eternal or, as do the Sāṅkhyas, that it is eternal.

Amitagati’s classification of these untruths (e.g., viparīta) is given not only by the Digambaras Amitagati and Amṛtacandra but also in the Yoga-śāstra where the treatment goes back directly to Siddhasena’s commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra (verse 7.9) and indeed to the Śvetāmbara Bhāṣya.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Viparīta (विपरीत) refers to “contrary attitude” and represents one of the five types of “wrong belief derived from teachings” (grahīta), itself representing one of the two types of mithyādarśana (wrong belief) which is one of the five causes of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 8.1.—What is meant by contrary attitude wrong belief (viparīta)? To think of the nature of soul or other substances exactly opposite of their true nature (e.g. to say that violence is religion) is contrary attitude wrong belief.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Viparīta (विपरीत) or Viparītatva refers to “contrariety (in the friendliness)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—Next he speaks about the contrariety (viparītatvam) in the friendliness (hitatve) of friends (bāndhavānāṃ)]—Those who throw you into the whirlpool of life are certainly not [your] friends. Having shown [you] what is beneficial, yogis will form a kinship with you”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viparita in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

viparīta : (adj.) reversed; changed; wrong. || viparītā (f.) contradistinction.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Viparīta, (adj.) (pp. of vi+pari+i) reversed, changed; equivocal; wrong, upset A. III, 114 (°dassana); IV, 226 (id.); V, 284; Th. 2, 393; J. I, 334; Kvu 307; Miln. 285, 324; Nett 85 (°gāha), 126 (°saññā); PvA. 244.—aviparīta unequivocal, certain, distinct, definite A. V, 268 (°dassana); Miln. 214 (°vacana); PvA. 231 (=sacca & yāthāva). (Page 627)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viparīta (विपरीत).—a (S) Opposite, contrary, reverse. 2 Adverse, hostile, not favorable or propitious.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

viparīta (विपरीत).—a Opposite, contrary. Hostile, adverse.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viparīta (विपरीत).—a.

1) Reversed, inverted.

2) Contrary, opposite, reverse, inverse; राज्येन किं तद्विपरीतवृत्तेः (rājyena kiṃ tadviparītavṛtteḥ) R.2.53.

3) Wrong, contrary to rule.

4) False, untrue; विपरी- तार्थविदो हि योषितः (viparī- tārthavido hi yoṣitaḥ) Bv.2.177.

5) Unfavourable, adverse.

6) Cross, acting in an opposite manner; विपरीतश्च वृद्धश्च विषयैश्च प्रधर्षितः (viparītaśca vṛddhaśca viṣayaiśca pradharṣitaḥ) Rām.2.21.3.

7) Disagreeable, inauspicious.

-taḥ A particular mode of sexual enjoyment.

-tā 1 An unchaste or faithless wife.

2) A perverse woman.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparīta (विपरीत).—mfn.

(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) 1. Reverse, inverse, opposite, contrary. 2. Wrong, incorrect. 3. Crossed. 4. Disagreeable, inauspicious. f.

(-tā) A lewd woman, a dishonest wife. m.

(-taḥ) A particular mode of coitus. E. vi and pari implying contrariety or adverse, before ita gone.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparīta (विपरीत).—[adjective] inverted, opposite, different, wrong, bad.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viparīta (विपरीत):—[=vi-parīta] [from vi-parī] mfn. turned round, reversed, inverted, [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Nirukta, by Yāska] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] being the reverse of anything, acting in a contrary manner, opposite, contrary to ([ablative]), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] going asunder or in different directions, various, different, [Kaṭha-upaniṣad]

4) [v.s. ...] perverse, wrong, contrary to rule, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] adverse, inauspicious, unfavourable, [ib.]

6) [v.s. ...] false, untrue, [Bhāminī-vilāsa]

7) Viparītā (विपरीता):—[=vi-parītā] [from vi-parīta > vi-parī] f. a perverse or unchaste woman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of two metres, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparīta (विपरीत):—[vi-parīta] (taḥ-tā-taṃ) a. Reverse, contrary, opposite. f. A lewd woman.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Viparīta (विपरीत) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vivarīa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Viparita in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viparita in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Viparīta (विपरीत) [Also spelled viprit]:—(a) opposite/opposed; contrary, reverse; ~[gati] (going in) the opposite direction; ~[tā/tva] contrariety; antithesis; ~[buddhi/mati] mentally aberrant, wayward; —[rati] a typical copulative posture where the woman assumes an active role; —[lakṣaṇā] antiphrasis.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Viparīta (ವಿಪರೀತ):—

1) [adjective] turned from the right, correct path, way or course.

2) [adjective] contrary to or at variance with, nature; not natural or normal; abnormal; anamolous.

3) [adjective] inverted; reversed in order or relation.

4) [adjective] being too much or too great; immoderate; inordinate.

5) [adjective] quite unusual or uncommon; extraordinary; strange.

--- OR ---

Viparīta (ವಿಪರೀತ):—

1) [noun] the condition or quality of being contrary; contrariety.

2) [noun] something inverted; reversal; inversion.

3) [noun] an adversary; an opponent.

4) [noun] the quality or fact of being immoderate; immoderation; excess.

5) [noun] the quality of being extraordinary, exceptional; extraordinariness; exceptionality.

6) [noun] unnaturalness; a rare phenomenon; abnormalism.

7) [noun] an error; a mistake; a blunder.

8) [noun] that which is not true; falsehood.

9) [noun] a contradictory behaviour.

10) [noun] (rhet.) a figure of speech in which an unreal or unreasonable quality or characteristic is used to compare with.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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