Vidruma: 23 definitions

Introduction:

Vidruma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vidrum.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Vidruma (विद्रुम) refers to “coral”. It is used in Ayurvedic literature such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara (Sanskrit book on rasaśāstra, or ‘Indian medicinal alchemy’).

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Vidruma (विद्रुम) is another name for Kumuda, one of the seven major mountains in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vidruma (विद्रुम).—A mountain of Kuśadvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 54; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 41.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Vidruma (विद्रुम) refers to “coral” and represents a kind of precious stone (gem) used for the making of images (Hindu icons), as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The materials listed in the Āgamas for the making of images are wood, stone, precious gems, metals, terracotta, laterite, earth, and a combination of two or three or more of the materials specified above. The precious stones mentioned in the Āgamas for the purpose of making images are [for example] vidruma (coral).

Precious stones (e.g., vidruma or ‘coral’) are preferred materials for fashioning images.—The materials recommended in the śilpaśāstra for the fashioning of images are unburnt clay, burnt clay as in brick or terracotta, sudhā (a special kind of mortar/plaster), composite earth, wood, stone, metal, ivory, dhātu (mineral), pigment, and precious stones. Wood is considered superior to earth, stone as better than wood, metal better than stone, and precious stone (such as vidruma) is the most preferred of all.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Vidruma (विद्रुम) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Vidruma has 28 mātrās in each of their four lines, made up with 1 ṣaṇmātra (SSS), 1 pañcamātra (SIS), 1 trimātra (IS), 2 pañcamātras of any type and 1 caturmātra (IIS) at the end.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Vidruma (विद्रुम) refers to “corals”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 12), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The mighty ocean whose waters were swallowed by Agastya, exhibited gems that eclipsed the splendour of the crowns of the Devas and rocks broken by the action of the sharks on them and thus presented an appearance beautiful, though without water. It also exhibited hills with trees, corals [i.e., vidruma] and gems and the scene was rendered picturesque by serpents that issued from the rocks. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Vidruma (विद्रुम) refers to “(red) coral”, according to the Kulakaulinīmata 5.88-99.—Accordingly, “The goddess (Tripurabhairavī) is red like vermillion and the Bandhūka flower. [...] A rosary, brilliant like a hundred suns [i.e., śatasūrya-samaprabha], is in the right hand. She makes a fear dispelling gesture with the left and a boon-bestowing one with the right. The garland around her neck hangs down to her feet. Its form divine and enveloped in blazing flames brilliant like the sun, it looks like red coral [i.e., rakta-vidruma-sannibhā]. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Vidruma (विद्रुम) refers to “(decorations of) coral”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “He should have the supreme Yantra constructed out of refined gold, with decorations of gems and coral (vidruma) and with all [the necessary] adornments. Just by making this, he shall obtain territory free of disorders. Having [properly] installed it, he should respectfully worship this [Yantra] which bestows all accomplishments. [...]”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Vidruma (विद्रुम, “coral”) or Pravāḍa refers to a type of jewel (ratna), into which the universe was transformed by the Buddha’s miraculous power (ṛddhibala) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “Coral (pravāḍa, vidruma) comes from petrified trees found in the sea”.

Also, “These jewels (eg, vidruma) are of three types, Human jewels (manuṣya-ratna), Divine jewels (divya-ratna) and Bodhisattva jewels (bodhisattva-ratna). These various jewels remove the poverty (dāridrya) and the suffering (duḥkha) of beings”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Vidruma (विद्रुम) (also, Pravāla, Pravāḍa) (Tibetan: byi ru or byu ru) refers to “red coral” (a type of jewel or precious stone, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “[...] Then the Bodhisattva Ratnavyūha said to the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja: ‘Son of good family, please pour down rain of all kinds of jewels from the sky’. Immediately after his words, the great rain of immeasurable, incalculable amount of jewels, equal to Mount Sumeru in size, with various kinds of names and colors, poured down from ten directions. To wit, [...] conch shell, crystal, red coral (pravāla), sapphire, Guṇākara gem, calm light gem, water-light gem, water-like gem, transparent gem, earthy light gem, indestructible gem, blinding gem, Śakra-holding gem, victor’s gem, the great victor’s gem, [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Vidruma is another of Mandara, a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Mandara refers to the “coral-tree” and is mentioned to beo n the bank of river Mandakini. Another name is Vidruma.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (e.g., Vidruma), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Vidruma, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vidruma (विद्रुम).—n S Coral.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vidruma (विद्रुम).—n Coral.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vidruma (विद्रुम).—

1) The coral tree (bearing reddish precious gems called corals).

2) A coral; यत्र विद्रुमसोपाना महा- मारकता भुवः (yatra vidrumasopānā mahā- mārakatā bhuvaḥ) Bhāgavata 7.4.9; तवाधरस्पर्धिषु विद्रुमेषु (tavādharaspardhiṣu vidrumeṣu) R.13.13. Kumārasambhava 1.44.

3) A young shoot or sprout.

Derivable forms: vidrumaḥ (विद्रुमः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vidruma (विद्रुम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Coral. 2. A tree bearing precious gems. 3. A young sprout or shoot. E. vi implying species, druma a tree.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vidruma (विद्रुम).—[vi-druma], m. 1. Coral, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 6, 16; [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 25, 16. 2. A tree bearing precious gems. 3. A young sprout.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vidruma (विद्रुम).—1. [neuter] coral.

--- OR ---

Vidruma (विद्रुम).—2. [adjective] treeless.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vidruma (विद्रुम):—[=vi-druma] [from vi] 1. vi-druma mfn. treeless, [Naiṣadha-carita]

2) [v.s. ...] 2. vi-druma n. ([according to] to [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] m.) ‘peculiar tree’, coral, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] m. a young sprout or shoot, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] = vṛkṣa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a mountain, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

6) [=vi-druma] a etc. See p. 951, col. 1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vidruma (विद्रुम):—[vi-druma] (maḥ) 1. m. Coral; tree bearing gems; young sprout.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vidruma (विद्रुम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vidduma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vidruma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vidruma in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vidruma (विद्रुम) [Also spelled vidrum]:—(nm) coral; the coral tree.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vidruma (ವಿದ್ರುಮ):—

1) [noun] a piece of coral, esp. the red kind used in jewelry; coral.

2) [noun] a young sprout or shoot.

3) [noun] a very large tree.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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