Sadharana, Sādhāraṇa: 31 definitions


Sadharana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sadharan.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Natya Shastra

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण, “overlapping”).—One of the four classes of mūrchāna (melody).—The sādhāraṇa-mūrchānas include the “overlapping notes” or is combined with the kākalī notes or the intermediate notes (antarasvara), and this belongs to both the grāmas (Ṣaḍja and Madhyama). It is also known as sādhāraṇakṛta.

The overlapping (sādhāraṇa) means the quality of a noce rising between two consecutive notes in a grāma. Why? The thing which exists between the two similar things, partly merging into each other is overlapping (sādhāraṇa), e.g., the transition of a season.

There are two kinds of overlapping:

  1. svara-sādhāraṇa (overlapping in notes),
  2. jāti-sādhāraṇa (overlapping in jātis).
Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) is an alternative name for Sāmānya, which refers to a “heroine of good character” and represents one of the three kinds of “heroines” (nāyikā) in a dramatic representation, according to the Abhinaya-sara-samputa, as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—In the depiction of any mood or sentiment, a dance performance or a dramatic representation takes the medium of the hero (nāyaka) and the heroine (nāyikā). The nāyikās (heroines) are generally classified into three types [viz., Sādhāraṇa or Sāmānya].

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Sadharana in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) refers to the forty-fourth of the sixty-year cycle of Jupiter, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The first year of the ninth yuga is Plavaṅga, the next year is known as Kīlaka, the third is known as Saumya and the last two years are known as Sādhāraṇa and Rodhakṛt respectively; of these, during the years Kīlaka and Saumya mankind will be happy. In the year Plavaṅga mankind will suffer much; in Sādhāraṇa there will be slight rain and crops will suffer; in the fifth year there will be a variety of rainfall and crops will thrive”.

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) refers to the forty-fourth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native who is born in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘sadharana’ has love for wandering here and there, is talented in writing, has discrimination or prudence, is given to anger, is pure and is detached or free from worldly pleasures.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year sadharana (2030-2031 AD) will be versed in various branches of learning and will possess a sound understanding.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण).—Common, conveying a common notion; cf. साधारणान्युत्तराणि षट् दिवश्चादित्यस्य च (sādhāraṇānyuttarāṇi ṣaṭ divaścādityasya ca) Nir II. 13.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Sadharana in Ayurveda glossary

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण, “mixed”) or Sādhāraṇadeśa refers to “mixed land” and represents one of the three classifications of “land” (deśa), as defined in the first chapter (ānūpādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “where the characteristics of both, i.e. wet [anūpa] and dry [jāṅgala] lands are noticed, that land is called common or mixed land [sādhāraṇa-deśa]. Wheat, barley and Maiza (Phaseolus mungo Linn.) are usual crops and grow in abundance. This land is pleasant for all types of living beings. The vitiation of pitta-doṣas here, is of a mild nature. Their aggravation always takes a soothing turn”.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) refers to a classification of the terrestial type of water (jala) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different types of water (jala) and their properties are mentioned here [viz., in jala-prakaraṇa]. The water is classified into two as celestial and terrestrial ones. Terrestrial waters are classified into three [viz., other varieties (sādhāraṇa)].

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Critical Review of Rasaratna Samuccaya

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) or Sādhāraṇarasa refers to “eight metals which are considered slightly inferior to uparasa in processing mercury”, and mentioned in the Rasaratnasamuccaya: a 13th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) refers to “universal” (applicable to all humours), mentioned in verse 3.44 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] as the (humours and the gastric fire) irritate one another this way, one shall turn to all (substances) that (are) applicable to all humours [viz., sādhāraṇa] and promotive of the (gastric) fire [...]”.

Note: Sādhāraṇa (“universal, applicable to all humours”) and rendered freely by “dro-źiṅ me-yi stobs (b)skyed-pa”—“being warm and producing strength of the (gastric) fire”—mi (for me) in C is a xylographical error.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

1) Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) refers to a “ordinary ācamana”, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—After applying Tilaka (clay markings), one should perform ācamana. Vaiṣṇava ācamana is of two kinds: ordinary (sādhāraṇa) and specific (viśeṣa). before performing any devotional activity, ordinary ācamana will suffice. However, at the time of bathing the deity or at the time of pūjā, viśeṣa-ācamana is to be performed. [...] In a situation where one is unable to perform viśeṣa-ācamana, ordinary ācamana will suffice.

2) Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) is the forty-fourth of sixty years (saṃvatsara) in the Vedic lunar calendar according to the Arcana-dīpikā by Vāmana Mahārāja (cf. Appendix).—Accordingl, There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (Amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (Gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or March. The Vedic year [viz., Sādhāraṇa], therefore, does not correspond exactly with the Christian solar calendar year.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

sadharana means treating or dealing with

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Sadharana in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) refers to “general (characteristics)”, according to  the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 40.—Accordingly: The Buddha utters the lion’s roar. He is like the king of the lions (siṃharāja). [...] The Buddha-lion is very similar. [...] Finally, there are twenty reasons why the Buddha’s voice is called the lion’s roar: [...] In its general characteristics (sādhāraṇa-lakṣaṇa) and its specific characteristics (svalakṣaṇa) this is the meaning of the Roar of the Lion. [...]

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Sadharana in Jainism glossary
Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) refers to “plants having many souls in one body” and represents an attribute of certain sthāvara-jīvas (“immovable living things”), according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] the immovable jīvas [viz., sthāvara] having one sense are: earth, water, fire, air, and plants. The first four of these may be either fine (sūkṣma) or gross, (bādara). Plants are of two kinds: those that have one soul in one body (pratyeka) and those that have many souls in one body (sādhāraṇa); and those that have many souls in one body are also of two kinds, fine and gross”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) or Sādhāraṇaśarīra refers to the “common body” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by common body (sādhāraṇa) body-making karmas? The rise of these karmas causes many living beings to have one common body to share is called common body-making karma.

The opposite-pair of the sādhāraṇa-śarīra (common body) is the pratyeka-śarīra (individual body).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sādhāraṇa.—(IA 20), used in the sense of laukika. Note: sādhāraṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sadharana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sādhāraṇa : (adj.) common; general.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sādhāraṇa, (adj.) general, common, joint Vin. II, 258; III, 35; Th. 2, 505; J. I, 202, 302; IV, 7 (pañca°-bhāva 5 fold connection); Nett 49 sq.; PvA. 122, 194, 265. a° J. I, 78; DA. I, 71. (Page 703)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sadharana in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sādhāraṇa (साधारण).—a (S) Common, general, generic, belonging to all or many, not particular, peculiar, or specific. 2 Middling, indifferent, ordinary, of the common sort. 3 as s n A common rule or precept; a rule &c. applicable to many persons or matters. 4 Specific or generic character; character common to all the individuals of a species, to all the species of a genus, to all the genera of an order &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sādhāraṇa (साधारण).—a Common. Ordinary. n Specific or generic character.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sadharana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण).—a. (-ṇā or -ṇī f.)

1) Common (to two or more), joint; साधारणोऽयं प्रणयः (sādhāraṇo'yaṃ praṇayaḥ) Ś.3; साधारणो भूषणभूष्यभावः (sādhāraṇo bhūṣaṇabhūṣyabhāvaḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.42; R.16.5; V.2.16.

2) Ordinary, common; साधारणी न खलु बाधा भवस्य (sādhāraṇī na khalu bādhā bhavasya) Aśvad.1.

3) General, universal; यत्सप्तान्नानि मेधया तपसाजनयत् पिता । एकमस्य साधारणम् (yatsaptānnāni medhayā tapasājanayat pitā | ekamasya sādhāraṇam) Bri. Up.1.5.1.

4) Mingled, mixed with, in common with; उत्कण्ठासाधारणं परितोषमनुभवामि (utkaṇṭhāsādhāraṇaṃ paritoṣamanubhavāmi) Ś.4; वीज्यते स हि संसुप्तः श्वाससाधारणानिलैः (vījyate sa hi saṃsuptaḥ śvāsasādhāraṇānilaiḥ) Kumārasambhava 2.42.

5) Equal, similar, like.

6) (In logic) Belonging to more than one instance alleged, one of the three divisions of the fallacy called अनैकान्तिक (anaikāntika) q. v.

7) Occupying a middle position, mean.

-ṇam 1 A common or general rule, a rule or precept generally applicable.

2) A generic property.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण).—mfn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇā or ṇī-ṇaṃ) 1. Like, similar. 2. Common, belonging to all or many. 3. Generic. n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. A common rule or precept, one applicable to many persons or things. 2. A specific or generic character, one common to all the individuals of a species, or all the species of a genus, &c. f. (-ṇī) A small bolt or bar. E. sa for saha with, dhāraṇa having, aff. aṇ or ṣyañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण).—i. e. sa-dhāra- ṇa + a, adj. 1. Belonging to many, common, Bhāṣāp. 71; equal, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 34. 2. Like, similar, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 85, 10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण).—[feminine] ī & ā common to or with ([genetive], [dative], [instrumental] ±saha, or —°); general, universal; equal, like, similar ([instrumental] or —°). [neuter] community, common cause. — Abstr. † [feminine], tva† [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—[nyāya] by Gadādhara q. v.

2) Sādhāraṇa (साधारण):—[nyāya] by Gadādhara. Cs 3, 474 (Sādhāraṇādibādhānta). 510 (inc.). Hz. 1248.
—by Jagadīśa. Cs 3, 475 ([fragmentary]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sādhāraṇa (साधारण):—[from sādhāra] mf(ī or ā)n. ‘having or resting on the same support or basis’, belonging or applicable to many or all, general, common to all, universal, common to ([genitive case] [dative case] [instrumental case] with and without saha, or [compound]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] like, equal or similar to ([instrumental case] or [compound]), [Harivaṃśa; Kālidāsa]

3) [v.s. ...] behaving alike, [Dhūrtasamāgama]

4) [v.s. ...] having something of two opposite properties, occupying a middle position, mean (between two extremes e.g. ‘neither too dry nor too wet’, ‘neither too cool nor too hot’), [Suśruta; Kāmandakīya-nītisāra; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

5) [v.s. ...] (in logic) belonging to more than the one instance alleged (one of the three divisions of the fallacy called anaikāntika q.v.)

6) [v.s. ...] generic, [Horace H. Wilson]

7) [v.s. ...] m. Name of the 44th (or 18th) year of Jupiter’s cycle of 60 years, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

8) [from sādhāra] m. or n. (?) Name of a Nyāya [work] by Gāda-dhara

9) [v.s. ...] n. something in common, a league or alliance with ([compound]), [Subhāṣitāvali]

10) [v.s. ...] a common rule or one generally applicable, [Horace H. Wilson]

11) [v.s. ...] a generic property, a character common to all the individuals of a species or to all the species of a genus etc., [ib.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण):—[(ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) a.] Like; common; generic. n. Common rule; generic character. f. (ī) Small bolt or bar.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Sāhāra, Sāhāraṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sadharana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sadharana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Sādhāraṇa (साधारण) [Also spelled sadharan]:—(a) ordinary; simple; common, commonplace; usual, moderate; —[kārāvāsa/kada] simple imprisonment; —[dharma] common characteristic; universal duty; hence ~[] (nf); —[vākya] a simple sentence.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sadharana in Prakrit glossary
Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Sādhāraṇā (साधारणा) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Saṃdhāraṇā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sadharana in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Sādhāraṇa (ಸಾಧಾರಣ):—

1) [adjective] belonging or relating to the community at large; public; common.

2) [adjective] most common; not special; usual; general.

3) [adjective] of, for or applying to a whole genus, kind, class order or race; general.

4) [adjective] not exclusive; mixed with; mingled.

--- OR ---

Sādhāraṇa (ಸಾಧಾರಣ):—

1) [noun] the condition or quality of being general or applicable to all; generality.

2) [noun] a rule, regulation, pattern of behaviour, etc. that is applicable to or found in all.

3) [noun] the quality of being common, not special.

4) [noun] a particular characteristic, quality that is common to a class, group, etc.

5) [noun] name of the fortyfourth year in the Hindu cycle of sixty years.

6) [noun] a tract of land that is covered with water or is characterised by wet soil and aquatic, grass-like vegetation; a boggy land.

7) [noun] (Dvaita phil.) one of the ten different divine forms of Viṣṇu, only which can be perceived, imagined by the ordinary people.

8) [noun] (jain.) one of the sixteen types of karma (the deeds of a being that bind it variously).

9) [noun] an ordinary, common man.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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