Sthavara, Sthāvara: 26 definitions


Sthavara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sthavar.

In Hinduism

Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Sāṃkhya philosophy

Sthāvara (स्थावर) refers to “immovable creatures” such as trees or plants, and represents a division of the animal world (tairyaksarga) according to the Sāṃkhyakārikā. The tairyaksarga is one of the three types of elemental creation, also known as bhautikasarga.

The Sāṃkhyakārikā by Iśvarakṛṣṇa is the earliest extant text of the Sāṃkhya school of philosophy and dates from the 4th century CE. It contains 72 Sanskrit verses and contents include epistemology and the theory of causation.

Samkhya book cover
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Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Snake bite treatment in Prayoga samuccayam

Sthāvara (स्थावर) or Sthāvaraviṣa refers to “animate poisons” and represents one of the two kinds of “poison” (viṣa), and is dealt with in the 20th century Prayogasamuccaya (one of the most popular and widely practised book in toxicology in Malayalam).—The work classifies viṣa into two groups, viz. sthāvara and jaṅgama (animate and inanimate). This is followed by a brief description of the origin of snakes.

Sthāvara-viṣa (poisoning due to inanimate things) and kaiviṣa (homicidal poison) are dealt with in chapter eleven:—Tests to detect the site of poison, signs and symptoms of sthāvara-viṣa (poisoning due to inanimate things) and its treatment are explained. Simple medications such as continuous pouring of cold water and buttermilk treated with Vilva (Aegele marmelos) leaf for internal use are recommended. Along with the above, antidotes for 33 poisonous drugs, atibhakṣaṇa (over-eating) treatment, incompatible foods and its treatment, food poisoning features and treatment are also explained in a practically feasible manner.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Sthāvara (स्थावर):—[sthāvaraṃ] The poison obtained from inanimate things such as aconite, opium, cannabis, oleander, arsenic, orpiment etc.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Sthāvara (स्थावर) or Sthāvaraviṣa refers to “immobile” or “plant” (poison), as described in the treatment (cikitsā) of poison due to rabid dogs (alarka), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—The 12h adhyāya of the Kāśyapasaṃhita also deals with the mantras for curing immobile or plant poison (sthāvara-viṣa) as well as antidotes made of medicines that quell the same [sthāvarasya viṣaghnaṃ].

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Sthavara in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sthāvara (स्थावर) refers to the “immobile (trees and bushes)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.19 (“Kāma’s destruction by Śiva”).—Accordingly, after Rati lamented her husband’s death: “Lamenting thus and crying out various piteous words she beat with her hands, kicked with her legs and plucked her hairs. O Nārada, on hearing her lamentation even the beasts and residents of the forest, nay all the immobile trees and bushes [i.e., sthāvara] became miserable. In the meantime Indra and other gods remembered lord Śiva and consoled Rati saying as follows:—[...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Sthāvara (स्थावर) refers to “men of principles”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 15) (“On the nakṣatras—‘asterisms’”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Those who are born on the lunar day of Uttarāṣāḍha will be chief ministers or wrestlers; will keep elephants and horses, will be religious; will be men of principles (sthāvara); soldiers; happy and of bright appearance. Those who are born on the lunar day of Śravaṇa will be cunning, of active habits, efficient workmen, bold, virtuous, god-fearing and truthful”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Sthāvara (स्थावर) or Sthāvaraliṅga refers to “fixed (images)”, according to verse 4.243 of the Mohacūrottara (Mohacūḍottara), a Śaiva text from the 10th century.—Accordingly, “The reward that a wise man gains from establishing a mobile image [i.e. an ascetic] in a maṭha is the same as the reward that he gains from establishing a fixed image (sthāvaraliṅgasthāvaraṃ liṅgaṃ) in a temple”.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Sthavara (स्थवर) refers to “vegetation”, according to the Kularatnapañcakāvatāra verse 1.23cd-33ab.—Accordingly, “[...] (Whereas) those who know the reality of Kula are born from the path of Kula. Once drunk the divine nectar of Kula there is no rebirth again. Kaula is the permutation of those two and abides in the form of the individual soul. Nothing arises without that in the mobile and immobile universe. When known, the gods, demons, people, animals, vegetation (sthavara) and birds dissolve away (into the absolute). O dear one, the cause of that is Kaula. As the triple universe along with the gods, demons and men, belongs to Kaula, it is said to be Kaula, the cause of the birth of the body”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Sthāvara (स्थावर) or Sthāvarajīva refers to “immovable living things” and represents one of the two types of jīva (“living things”), according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] Jīvas are known to be of two kinds: immovable (sthāvara) and movable (trasa). In both of these there are two divisions, depending on whether they have faculties to develop (paryāpti) or not. There are six faculties to develop, which are the cause of development: eating food and digesting it, body, senses, breath, speech, and mind. Creatures that have one sense, two to four, or five senses, have respectively four, five, or six faculties. [...] The immovable jīvas [viz., sthāvara] having one sense are: earth, water, fire, air, and plants. The first four of these may be either fine (sūkṣma) or gross, (bādara). Plants are of two kinds: those that have one soul in one body (pratyeka) and those that have many souls in one body (sādhāraṇa); and those that have many souls in one body are also of two kinds, fine and gross”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Sthāvara (स्थावर, “immobile”) refers to “stationary bodies” and represents one of saṃsārī, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.12.—The pure soul bonded with karmas is called empirical soul (saṃsārī) and represents a type of Jīva (sentients, souls).

What is the meaning of with stationery bodies (sthāvara)? The state of empirical souls due to the rise of ‘stationery-body-making karma’/ sthāvara-nāmakarma, having only one type of sense organ namely body and which cannot move around freely are called with stationery bodies. Why is stationery being not capable of veneration? As they cannot attain right belief, they are not venerable.

How many types of stationery living beings (sthāvara) are there and what are there names? They are of five types, namely: earth-bodied (pṛthivī), water-bodied (ap, āpas, jala), fire-bodied (tejas, agni), air-bodied (vāyu) and plant-bodied (vanaspati).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Sthāvara (स्थावर) refers to the “stationery body” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by stationery body (sthāvara) body-making karma? The rise of these karmas causes living being to be born with one sense organ only is called stationery body body-making karmas.

The opposite-pair of sthāvara (stationery body) is trasa (mobile body).

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Sthāvara (स्थावर) refers to “one-sensed beings”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “In one minute living being there are organisms infinite times the emancipated souls. Thus the entire universe is densely filled with one-sensed beings (sthāvara) with no interspace. To become a being with more than one sense is as difficult as finding out a very small piece of diamond buried in the sands of an ocean. Even among these most of them are endowed with imperfect senses (i.e. less than five senses). Hence birth as a five-sensed being is as rare as gratitude among the good qualities. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sthāvara.—cf. sa-sthāvara-jaṅgama (IE 8-5); the immovable belongings of a village. Note: sthāvara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sthāvara (स्थावर).—n (S) Immovable property: also property which ought not to be alienated.

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sthāvara (स्थावर).—a (S) That has not the power of motion; fixed, stationary, not locomotive. 2 Immovable, fixed to the spot, that cannot be or must not be removed;--as a field, a house, an estate, family jewels or other items of property which have been long in the family.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sthāvara (स्थावर).—a Stationary; immovable. n Immovable property.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sthāvara (स्थावर).—a. [sthā-varac]

1) Fixed to one spot, stable, stationary, immoveable, inanimate (opp. jaṅgama); शरी- रिणां स्थावरजङ्गमानां सुखाय तज्जन्मदिनं बभूव (śarī- riṇāṃ sthāvarajaṅgamānāṃ sukhāya tajjanmadinaṃ babhūva) Kumārasambhava 1.23;6.67, 73.

2) Inert, inactive, slow.

3) Regular, established.

-raḥ A mountain; स्थावराणां हिमालयः (sthāvarāṇāṃ himālayaḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 1.25.

-ram 1 Any stationary or inanimate object (such as clay, stones, trees &c. which formed the seventh creation of Brahman; cf. Manusmṛti 1.41); मान्यः स मे स्थावरजङ्गमानां सर्गस्थितिप्रत्यवहारहेतुः (mānyaḥ sa me sthāvarajaṅgamānāṃ sargasthitipratyavahārahetuḥ) R.2.44; Kumārasambhava 6.58.

2) A bowstring.

3) Immoveable property, real estate.

4) A heir-loom.

5) A large body; (fig.) a gross or material body (sthūlaśarīra); गमनं निरपेक्षश्च पश्चादनवलोकयन् । ऋजुः प्रणिहितो गच्छंस्त्रसस्थावरवर्जकः (gamanaṃ nirapekṣaśca paścādanavalokayan | ṛjuḥ praṇihito gacchaṃstrasasthāvaravarjakaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.9.19.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Sthāvarā (स्थावरा).—name of an earth-goddess, (mahā-)pṛthivīde-vatā: Lalitavistara 319.3, 9; Gaṇḍavyūha 220.19 ff. (dwelling at the bodhi- maṇḍa, in Magadha-viṣaya).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthāvara (स्थावर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Fixed, stationary, stable, immovable, (as opposed to jaṅgama.) 2. Regular, established. 3. Inactive, slow, inert. m.

(-raḥ) A mountain. n.

(-raṃ) 1. A bow-string. 2. Immovable property, land or houses. 3. Family property, jewels, &c., which have been long in a family, and which ought not to be sold or given away. 4. Any stationary or inanimate object, (considered to be the seventh creation of Brahma.) 5. A heir-loom. E. ṣṭhā to stand, varac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthāvara (स्थावर).—[sthā + vara] (i. e. van + a, with for ). I. adj. 1. Fixed, stable, immovable, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 40; 41; 5, 28. 2. Stationary (guards), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 266. 3. Established, regular. Ii. m. A mountain, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 10, 25. Iii. n. 1. A bowstring. 2. Real estate. 3. A heirloom.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthāvara (स्थावर).—[adjective] standing, immovable, firm, lasting, constant; vegetable, belonging to the vegetable world. [masculine] mountain; [masculine] [neuter] sgl. & [plural] the vegetable kingdom; [neuter] immovable property.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sthāvara (स्थावर):—[from sthā] a mf(ā)n. standing still, not moving, fixed, stationary, stable, immovable (opp. to jaṅgama q.v.), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] firm, constant, permanent, invariable, [Āpastamba; Rāmāyaṇa; Harivaṃśa]

3) [v.s. ...] regular, established, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) [v.s. ...] vegetable, belonging to the veg° world, [Suśruta]

5) [v.s. ...] relating to immovable property, [Yājñavalkya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

6) [v.s. ...] m. a mountain (cf. -rāja), [Bhagavad-gītā; Kumāra-sambhava]

7) Sthāvarā (स्थावरा):—[from sthāvara > sthā] f. Name of a Buddhist goddess, [Lalita-vistara]

8) Sthāvara (स्थावर):—[from sthā] n. any stationary or inanimate object (as a plant, mineral etc.; these form the seventh creation of Brahmā See under sarga), [Upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] stability, permanence ([varia lectio] sthira-tva), [Subhāṣitāvali]

10) [v.s. ...] immovable property, real estate (such as land or houses), [Yājñavalkya]

11) [v.s. ...] a heir-loom, family-possession (such as jewels etc., which have been long preserved in a family and ought not to be sold), [Horace H. Wilson]

12) [v.s. ...] a bow-string, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) b etc. See p. 1264, col. 1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthāvara (स्थावर):—[(raḥ-rā-raṃ) a.] Fixed, immoveable, regular. m. A mountain. n. A bow-string; real estate; an heirloom.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sthāvara (स्थावर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ṭhāvara, Thāvara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sthavara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sthavara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Sthāvara (स्थावर) [Also spelled sthavar]:—(a) immovable; stable, stationary; -[jaṃgama] immovable and movable; —[saṃpatti] immovable property, immovables.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Sthāvara (ಸ್ಥಾವರ):—

1) [adjective] not moving; stationary.

2) [adjective] lasting; permanent; standing.

3) [adjective] having no inherent power of action, motion or resistance; inert.

--- OR ---

Sthāvara (ಸ್ಥಾವರ):—

1) [noun] that which cannot not move (as a tree, mountain, land, etc.).

2) [noun] property as land, building, that are immobile (unlike money, vehicle, livestock, etc.).

3) [noun] a prticular vegetable poison.

4) [noun] a linga (a physical symbol of Śiva) installed in a temple (as diff. from a small one hung around one’s neck).

5) [noun] (jain.) a class of living beings that are incapable of movement.

6) [noun] a karma, that causes the being to be unmoveable.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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