Raurava: 17 definitions
Raurava means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Raurava (रौरव).—One of the twentyeight hells. For details see the part Naraka under the word Kāla.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Raurava (रौरव).—One of the 28 hells ever burning and under the earth; he who is self-centred and accumulates wealth at the cost of others suffers here; especially from animals, called Rurus (s.v) more cruel than serpents.1 False witnesses, men who are partial and speak untruth, people guilty of infanticide and of incendiarism go to this; also mahāraurava;2 those who perform rituals with joy and wrath also go here; below this is the tapa.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 30. 28; V. 26. 7-11.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 1. 141; IV. 2. 146, 151-3, 180; 7. 76; 33. 60; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 6. 41; II. 6. 2, 7.
- 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 65; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 146, 151-2, 177, 180, 205; 110. 42.
1b) The flesh of the Ruru antelope for śrāddha.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 17. 34.
1c) The fifth kalpa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 290. 4.
1d) A sūkta of the Sāma samhitā recited in tank ritual.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 58. 37.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Raurava (रौरव) refers to one of the thirty hells (naraka) mentioned in the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 8.21 (on the narrative of hells). The hells are destinations where dead beings brought by messengers of Yama (the God of the Pitṛs), and get punished by him according to their karmas and faults.
The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam (mentioning Raurava), is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Raurava (रौरव) or Rauravāgama refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The Śaivāgamas are divided into four groups viz. Śaiva, Pāśupata, Soma and Lākula. Śaiva is further divided in to Dakṣiṇa, Vāma and Siddhānta (eg., raurava).
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Raurava (रौरव) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Rauravī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Raurava] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Raurava (रौरव) refers to one of the eight great hells according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “The fourth and fifth great hells are Raurava and Mahārauva. The damned who are in these great hells have as guardians rākṣasas with heads yellow (pīta) like gold; their eyes shoot out fire and they are clothed in red cloaks (lohitavastra); their flesh is solid; their gait is as swift as the wind; their hands and feet are long; their mouth utters evil sounds; they hold tridents (triśūla) and forked arrows with which they stab and hurl at the damned like rain”.
Also, “in their previous lives, these unfortunate ones had traded with false weights and measures and given unjust sentences; they had not returned the supplies entrusted to them and had robbed their inferiors; they had tormented the poor (daridra), making them cry and weep; they had destroyed cities and neighborhoods, ravaged villages, killed and looted; in their perverse hatred against [certain clans], they had called to them from near the ramparts and then, by means of their tricks and deceitfulness, they had brought the people together and then massacred them. It is for all these crimes that they suffer all these punishments”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Raurava (रौरव) refers to the “hot hell” and represents one of the “eight hot hells” (uṣṇa-naraka) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 121). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., raurava). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Raurava (रौरव) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Raurava] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
raurava (रौरव).—m S A particular naraka, a division of Hell. See under the popular ravarava.
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raurava (रौरव).—& rauravī Preferably ravarava & ravaravī.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
raurava (रौरव).—m A particular naraka. A division of Hell.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Raurava (रौरव).—a. (-vī f.)
1) Made of the hide of Ruru; त्वचं स मेध्यां परिधाय रौरवीम् (tvacaṃ sa medhyāṃ paridhāya rauravīm) R.3.31.
2) Dreadful, terrible.
3) Fraudulent, dishonest.
-vaḥ 1 A savage.
2) Name of one of the hells; Ms.4.88; रौरवे कूटसाक्षी तु याति यश्चानृतो नरः (raurave kūṭasākṣī tu yāti yaścānṛto naraḥ) Mārkaṇḍeya P.; यदा रौरवादीन् स्मरन्नेव भीत्या (yadā rauravādīn smaranneva bhītyā) Śaṃkarāchārya.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Raurava (रौरव).—m. (= Pali Roruva), name of a hot hell, very common: often followed by Mahāraurava, from which in Mahāvastu i.5.13. it seems to be specially distinguished as ekānta-raurava (mahā-r° occurs in 14); the two referred to as dvau ca rauravau Mahāvastu i.9.8 = iii.454.7 (verse); followed by mahā-r°, Mahāvyutpatti 4923; Dharmasaṃgraha 121; Divyāvadāna 67.22; 138.6; 366.28; Avadāna-śataka i.4.8, etc.; without mahā-r°, Mahāvastu iii.274.11; Kāraṇḍavvūha 18.12, et alibi.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-vaḥ-vī-vaṃ) 1. Formidable, horrible, terrific. 2. Dishonest, fraudulent. 3. Unsteady, slipping. m.
(-vaḥ) 1. One of the divisions of Naraka or Tartarus. 2. A savage, a monster. E. rud to weep, deriv. irr.; or ruru said to mean a living being, aṇ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Raurava (रौरव).—I. i. e. ruru + a, adj., f. vī. 1. Proceeding from the common deer (viz. flesh, etc.), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 41; 3, 269; [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 105, 11. 2. Unsteady. Ii. adj. 1. Formidable. 2. Dishonest. Iii. m. 1. The name of a hell, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 88. 2. A savage.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Raurava (रौरव).—[feminine] ī coming from the Ruru (a kind of deer); [masculine] a cert. hell.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Raurava (रौरव) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a teacher of Śaiva doctrine. Quoted by Abhinavagupta in Īśvarapratyāsattivimarśinī.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Raurava (रौरव):—mf(ī)n. ([from] ruru) coming from or made of the skin of the deer called Ruru, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) fearful, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) unsteady, dishonest, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) m. Name of one of the hells, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (personified as husband of Vedanā and father of Duḥkha, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]; with Buddhists, one of the 8 hot hells, [Dharmasaṃgraha 121])
5) Name of the fifth Kalpa (q.v.)
6) a savage, monster, [Horace H. Wilson]
7) n. the fruit of the Ruru tree [gana] plakṣādi
8) Name of various Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Full-text (+33): Maharaurava, Naraka, Rauravatantra, Rauravaka, Raurukiya, Ruru, Ekantaraurava, Rorava, Kalpa, Vedana, Raurukin, Rauravottara, Parashakti, Asana, Rauravagama, Agama, Gomayalepana, Pacana, Ravarava, Pranayama.
Search found 35 books and stories containing Raurava; (plurals include: Rauravas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Markandeya Purana (by Frederick Eden Pargiter)
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Chapter II-a - Sermon on the Hells (naraka) < [Volume I]
Chapter II-f - The hell named Mahā-Raurava < [Volume I]
Chapter II-e - The hell named Raurava (...) < [Volume I]
Brahma Sutras (Nimbarka commentary) (by Roma Bose)
Brahma-Sūtra 3.1.15 < [Adhikaraṇa 3 - Sūtras 12-21]
Brahma-Sūtra 3.1.16 < [Adhikaraṇa 3 - Sūtras 12-21]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 4.88-90 < [Section X - Gifts not to be Accepted]
Verse 4.87 < [Section X - Gifts not to be Accepted]
Verse 3.269 < [Section XXI - Relative Merits of the Offering-Materials]
Brahma Sutras (Vedanta Sutras) (by George Thibaut)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)