Maharaurava, Mahāraurava, Maha-raurava: 12 definitions

Introduction

Maharaurava means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (M) next»] — Maharaurava in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Mahāraurava (महारौरव).—A naraka(hell). (See the section on Naraka under the word Kāla I).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Mahāraurava (महारौरव).—One of the 28 hells (seven hells below Kraśyādas torment one, who had been selfish all along.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 26. 7, 12; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 177; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 6. 41.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous (M) next»] — Maharaurava in Shaktism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Mahāraurava (महारौरव) refers to one of the thirty hells (naraka) mentioned in the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 8.21 (on the narrative of hells). The hells are destinations where dead beings brought by messengers of Yama (the God of the Pitṛs), and get punished by him according to their karmas and faults.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam (mentioning Mahāraurava), is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Mahāraurava (महारौरव) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Mahārauravī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Mahāraurava] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous (M) next»] — Maharaurava in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Mahāraurava (महारौरव) refers to one of the eight great hells according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “The fourth and fifth great hells are Raurava and Mahārauva. The damned who are in these great hells have as guardians rākṣasas with heads yellow (pīta) like gold; their eyes shoot out fire and they are clothed in red cloaks (lohitavastra); their flesh is solid; their gait is as swift as the wind; their hands and feet are long; their mouth utters evil sounds; they hold tridents (triśūla) and forked arrows with which they stab and hurl at the damned like rain... In the Mahāraurava hell, the damned are put into gas chambers: they are shut in prisons or in dark smokey holes and gassed. Or else they are thrown into wells. It is for having stolen others’ goods or for similar reasons that they suffer the torments of the Mahāraurava hell”.

Also, “in their previous lives, these unfortunate ones had traded with false weights and measures and given unjust sentences; they had not returned the supplies entrusted to them and had robbed their inferiors; they had tormented the poor (daridra), making them cry and weep; they had destroyed cities and neighborhoods, ravaged villages, killed and looted; in their perverse hatred against [certain clans], they had called to them from near the ramparts and then, by means of their tricks and deceitfulness, they had brought the people together and then massacred them. It is for all these crimes that they suffer all these punishments”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous (M) next»] — Maharaurava in Buddhism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Mahāraurava (महारौरव) refers to the “great hot hell” and represents one of the “eight hot hells” (uṣṇa-naraka) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 121). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., mahā-raurava). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (M) next»] — Maharaurava in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mahāraurava (महारौरव).—Name of one of the 21 hells; Ms.4.88-9.

Derivable forms: mahārauravaḥ (महारौरवः).

Mahāraurava is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms mahā and raurava (रौरव).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mahāraurava (महारौरव).—m., name of a hot hell, usually named after Raurava, q.v.; alone, e.g. Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 70.16; Jātakamālā 20.9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mahāraurava (महारौरव).—m.

(-vaḥ) One of the divisions of Tartarus, a hell. E. mahā great, ruru a demon, aff. aṇ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mahāraurava (महारौरव).—[masculine] a cert. hell.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mahāraurava (महारौरव):—[=mahā-raurava] [from mahā > mah] m. Name of a hell, [Aitareya-upaniṣad; Śaṃkarācārya; Purāṇa] etc. (one of the 8 hot hells, [Dharmasaṃgraha 121])

2) [v.s. ...] n. Name of a Sāman, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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