Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.14.619:

प्रकारवचनः कश्चित् प्रकारवति संस्थितः ।
प्रकारमात्रे वर्तित्वा कश्चिद् तद् व्यतिवर्तते ॥ ६१९ ॥

prakāravacanaḥ kaścit prakāravati saṃsthitaḥ |
prakāramātre vartitvā kaścid tad vyativartate || 619 ||

619. Some suffixes while expressing prakāra really denote that which has prakāra while others, after having expressed prakāra only, go beyond it (in association with something else).


[Another point to be considered is this: If the suffix thāl, taught after specific stems like kim, sarvanāma and bahu supersedes jātīyar, taught after any stem, how can the word kiṃ-jātīya be formed? If thāl itself expresses prakāra, how to explain the formation of tathājātīya where one finds both thāl and jātīyar? The position is this. The suffixes jātīyar and kan and repetition are all taught in the sense of prakāra. They convey prakāra secondarily and prakāravān = ‘that which has prakāra’ primarily. Thāl, on the other hand, expresses prakāra only and not prakāravān. But, after having expressed prakāra, it can express prakāravān in association with jātīyar. It is not like the word śukla which straightaway expresses that which is white. Therefore, thāl and jātīyar have different scope and so do not go against each other. Thus, the expression tathājātīyaḥ can be explained. In the sentence yathā devadattas tathā yajñadattaḥ, the word ending in thāl does not by itself denote that which has prakāra. What happens is that some verb expressive of action is required here to complete the meaning of the sentence and the prakāra which is the meaning of the word ending in thāl becomes the karaṇa in regard to the action denoted by that verb. Yena prakāreṇa devadatto vartate tena prakāreṇa yajñadatto'pi, this is the full meaning of the sentence.]

Let's grow together!

I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased sources, definitions and images. Your donation direclty influences the quality and quantity of knowledge, wisdom and spiritual insight the world is exposed to.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: