Mrid, Mṛd, Mṛḍ: 15 definitions



Mrid means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Mṛd and Mṛḍ can be transliterated into English as Mrd or Mrid, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Mṛd (मृद्, “clay”) refers to the material used to make earthen phallic embles (pārtiva-liṅga), according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.20.—“[...] O Brahmins, he shall bring clay (mṛd) from a clean place and carefully make the phallic image. White clay is to be used by a brahmin; red clay by a Kṣatriya; yellow clay by a Vaiśya and black clay by a Sūdra. Anything available shall be used if the specified clay is not found. After taking the clay he shall place it in an auspicious place for making the image. After washing the clay (mṛd) clean with water and kneading it slowly he shall prepare a good earthen phallic image according to the Vedic direction. Then he shall worship it with devotion for the sake of enjoying worldly pleasures here and salvation hereafter”.

Further, “thus the Vedic rite of the worship of Śiva has been explained in detail. Now listen to the excellent Vedic rite in brief. The clay (mṛd) shall be brought with the mantra ‘Sadyo Jātam’. The sprinkling of water shall be performed with the mantra ‘Vāmadevāya’”.

2) Mṛd (मृद्, “earth”) or Mṛṇmaya represents the material of the liṅga of Brahmins and their wives, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, where the Devas and Viṣṇu requested Viśvakarman for liṅgas for the achievement of the desires of all people:—“[...] at our bidding Viśvakarmā made liṅgas and gave them to the devas according to their status. [...] Great Brahmins and their wives chose liṅgas of earth (Mṛd-liṅga). Maya took a liṅga of sandalwood and Śeṣa nāga took a coral-made liṅga. [...] Thus different kinds of liṅgas were given to them by Viśvakarmā which the devas and the celestial sages worship regularly. After giving the devas the various liṅgas from a desire for their benefit, Viṣṇu explained the mode of worship of Śiva to me, Brahmā”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Mṛd (मृद्) or Mṛt refers to “good clay” or “earth” and is mentioned in a list of synonyms for mṛttakā (“clay”), according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil [viz., Mṛd], mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Mṛd (मृद्) or Mṛdbera refers to “icons made of processed earth”, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—The Vaiṣṇava Āgamas prescribe different materials for different types of icons installed in the temple. The dhruva icons of Viṣṇu alone may be made of any material. For the large immovable (acala), copper can also be used though copper and wood can also be used the stone or processed earth (mṛd) is commended for the same. Marīci and Bhṛgu state that the dhruva icons of Viṣṇu are made of processed earth (mṛd) with brick (iṣṭakā), wood (dāru), stone (śilā) and metal (loha) every succeeding one being superior to the one preceding in sequential order. According to Atri, wood is adhama, mṛd-bera is madhyama, stone is uttama and the copper is uttamottama.

The weathered mṛd-bera and stone icon should be covered with the ropes made of hairs of cow’s tail, kuśa grass, wool and cotton, and should be taken to sea or any deep reservoir and it is thrown in the deep area of the water sources

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Mṛd (मृद्) refers to “earth (material) § 2.12.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Mṛd (मृद्) denotes ‘clay’ in the later Saṃhitās and the Brāhmaṇas (cf. Mṛttikā). A ‘lump of clay’ also occurs in the Brāhmaṇas, and a Mṛtpaca, ‘potter’, in the Maitrāyaṇī-upaniṣad. A ‘clay vessel’, Mṛtpātra, and vessels (pātra) made of clay (mṛn-maya), are mentioned, and the grave is called the ‘house of clay’.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Jaina Yoga

Mṛd (मृद्, “earth”) refers to an article of food classified as abhakṣya (forbidden to eat) according to Nemicandra (in his Pravacana-sāroddhāra v245-246). Earth (mṛd) is prohibited because it contains pṛthvī-kāyas, because it may be a source of generation of trasa-jīvas with the full five senses like frogs, and because it may cause intestinal maladies. Salt is expressly excluded from the abhakṣyas as being essential to life but all other kinds of earth including chalk (khaṭikā) are covered by the ban.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mṛḍ (मृड्).—6, 9 P. (mṛḍati, mṛḍnāti)

1) To be gracious, be pleased.

2) To forgive, pardon.

3) To delight, gladden; इन्द्रारिव्याकुलं लोकं मृडयन्ति युगे युगे (indrārivyākulaṃ lokaṃ mṛḍayanti yuge yuge) Bhāg.1.3.28.

4) To be delighted or happy.

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Mṛd (मृद्).—9 P. (mṛdnāti, mṛdita)

1) To squeeze, press, rub; मम च मृदितं क्षौमं बाल्ये त्वदङ्गविवर्तनैः (mama ca mṛditaṃ kṣaumaṃ bālye tvadaṅgavivartanaiḥ) Ve.5.4.

2) To trample or tread upon; crush, dash to pieces, kill, destroy, pound, bruise, pulverize; तान मर्दीदखादीच्च (tāna mardīdakhādīcca) Bk.15. 35; बलान्यमृद्नान्नलिनाभवक्त्रः (balānyamṛdnānnalinābhavaktraḥ) R.18.5.

3) To rub, stroke, rub against, touch; अस्मिन्नसौ मृदितपक्ष्मलरल्लकाङ्गः (asminnasau mṛditapakṣmalarallakāṅgaḥ) Śi.4.61.

4) To overcome, surpass.

5) To wipe away, rub off, remove.

6) (In astr.) To pass through (as a constellation). -Caus. (mardayati) = मृद् (mṛd) q. v. above.

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Mṛd (मृद्).—f. [mṛdyate mṛd karmaṇi kvip]

1) Clay, earth, loam; आमोदं कुसुमभवं मृदेव धत्ते मृद्गन्धं न हि कुसुमानि धारयन्ति (āmodaṃ kusumabhavaṃ mṛdeva dhatte mṛdgandhaṃ na hi kusumāni dhārayanti) Subhāṣ.; प्रभवति शुचिर्बिम्बोद्ग्राहे मणिर्न मृदां चयः (prabhavati śucirbimbodgrāhe maṇirna mṛdāṃ cayaḥ) U.2.4.

2) A piece of earth, lump of clay; मृदः शुद्धिमभीप्सता (mṛdaḥ śuddhimabhīpsatā) Ms.5.136.

3) A mound of earth.

4) A kind of fragrant earth.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mṛḍ (मृड्).—r. 6th cl. (mṛḍati) r. 9th cl. (mṛḍṇāti) 1. To delight, to make happy. 2. To rejoice, to be happy or delighted. r. 9th cl. (According to some authorities,) To grind or pound.

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Mṛd (मृद्).—r. 9th cl. (mṛdnāti) 1. To grind, to powder, to reduce to dust or powder. 2. To trample on, to tread under foot. 3. To squeeze. 4. To wipe away. 5. To overcome.

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Mṛd (मृद्).—f. (mṛd or mṛt) 1. Earth, soil, clay. 2. A fragrant earth. E. mṛd to trample on, aff. kvip.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mṛḍ (मृड्).— (for original mṛḍḍh, i. e. mṛṣ-dhā, cf. Zend. marezhdā and merezhdika), i. 6, and ii. 9, mṛḍṇā, mṛḍṇī, [Parasmaipada.] 1. To pardon (ved.). 2. To exhilarate, to delight (ved.).

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Mṛd (मृद्).— (akin to mṛ), ii. 9, mṛdnā, nī, [Parasmaipada.] (in epic poetry also [Ātmanepada.], Mahābhārata 3, 2937, and i. 1, [Parasmaipada.], ib. 1, 4979). 1. To rub, Mahābhārata 3, 2937. 2. To stroke, Mahābhārata 4, 767. 3. To grind, to pound, to reduce to dust, Mahābhārata 3, 1349. 4. To crush, to dash to pieces, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 2149. 5. To batter, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 25, 5. 6. To trample on, to tread under foot, [Nala] 13, 39. mṛdita, Languid, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 36. [Causal.] mardaya, 1. To rub, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 131. 2. To tread under foot, to kill, Mahābhārata 3, 11106 (anomal. ptcple. pres. [Ātmanepada.] mardayāna). 3. To break to pieces, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 1, 72.

— With the prep. abhi abhi, To trample on, Mahābhārata 1, 7750.

— With ava ava, 1. To rub, Mahābhārata 4, 468. 2. To break to pieces, 3, 16346. 3. To trample on, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 93, 8. 4. To destroy, Mahābhārata 3, 10203.

— With ā ā, To grind to pieces, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 96, 20.

— With upa upa, To kill, Naiṣ. 5, 110.

— With pari pari, 1. To wipe off, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 77, 26. 2. To surpass (i. 1, [Parasmaipada.]), Mahābhārata 1, 4979. parimṛdita, Rubbed, ground, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 15, 16 (trampled upon).

— With pra pra, To destroy, Mahābhārata 3, 11676.

— With vi vi, 1. To rub to pieces, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 88, 8. 2. To break, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 70. 3. To destroy, Mahābhārata 1, 5504. [Causal.] To grind, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 88, 2.

— With sam sam, [Causal.] To rub, to clean, [Pañcatantra] 121, 13.

— Cf. [Latin] mordere; [Anglo-Saxon.] malt; [Old High German.] malz; [Anglo-Saxon.] meltan, miltan; [Old High German.] smelzan; [Anglo-Saxon.] smeortan; [Old High German.] smerzan; [Anglo-Saxon.] smilt, smylt, smolt;

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Mṛd (मृद्).—f. 1. Earth, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 109; clay, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 36. 2. A piece of earth, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 136. 3. A fragrant earth.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mṛḍ (मृड्).—mṛḍati (mṛLati), te & mṛḍayati (mṛLayati), te be gracious, forgive ([dative] of [person or personal] & [accusative] of th.); treat graciously, make happy. abhi forgive.

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Mṛd (मृद्).—1. mṛdnāti mardati mṛdnāti mardate (mradati, mradate) [participle] mṛdita, rub, squeeze, crush, smash; wipe off, destroy. [Causative] mardayati, te press or rub hard, pound, crush, grind down, destroy, harass, afflict, also cause to be rubbed etc.

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Mṛd (मृद्).—2. [feminine] clay, loam, mound of earth or lump of clay.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mṛḍ (मृड्):—([Ṛg-veda] mṛL) [class] 6. [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxviii, 38]), mṛḍati (mṛLati; once [Ātmanepada] mṛḍase, [Kāṭhaka]) [class] 9. [Parasmaipada] mṛḍnāti ([xxxi, 44]), [class] 10., mṛḍayati (mṛLayati), te;—mṛṇḍayati (?), [xxxii, 117] ([perfect tense] mamarḍa [grammar]; mamṛḍyuḥ, [Ṛg-veda]; amarḍīt [grammar]; [future] marḍitā, ḍiṣyati, [ib.]; [infinitive mood] marḍitum, [ib.]; [indeclinable participle] mṛḍitvā, [Pāṇini 1-2, 7]),

—to be gracious or favourable, pardon, spare (with [dative case] of [person] and [accusative] of, thing), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

—to treat kindly, make happy, rejoice, delight (with [accusative]), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa] :—[Causal] marḍayati ([Aorist] amīmṛḍat, or amamarḍat) [grammar]:—[Desiderative] mimarḍiṣati, [ib.] :—[Intensive] marīmṛḍyate, marīmarṭṭi, [ib.]

2) Mṛd (मृद्):—1. mṛd (cf.mrad and mṛḍ) [class] 9. [Parasmaipada] mṛdnāti ([class] 1. [Ātmanepada] [Parasmaipada] mardati, te, [Mahābhārata]; cf. [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska ii, 14]; [perfect tense] [Parasmaipada] mamarda, 3. [plural] mamṛduh. or mamarduḥ [Ātmanepada] mamṛde, [Mahābhārata]; [Aorist], amaradīt [grammar]; [future], mardiṣyati, te, [ib.]; [infinitive mood] marditum, [Mahābhārata]; tos, [Brāhmaṇa]; -mrade, [ib.]; [indeclinable participle], mriditvā, [Pāṇini 1-2, 7]; mṛdya, [Brāhmaṇa] etc.; -mardam, [Kāvya literature]),

2) —to press, squeeze, crush, pound, smash, trample down, tread upon, destroy, waste, ravage, kill, slay, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;

2) —to rub, stroke, wipe (e.g. the forehead), [ib.];

2) —to rub into, mingle with ([instrumental case]), [Suśruta];

2) —to rub against, touch, pass through (a constellation), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā];

2) —to overcome, surpass, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya] :—[Causal] mardayati (mc. also te; [Aorist] amīmridat or amamardat),

2) —to press or squeeze hard, crush, break, trample down, oppress, torment, plague, destroy, kill, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.;

2) —to rub, [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara];

2) —to cause to be trampled down, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]:

2) —[Desiderative] mimardiṣati, to desire to crush or pound, [Mahābhārata] [Intensive] marmartti (only [imperative] ttu, [Ṛg-veda ii, 23, 6]), to crush, grind down, destroy;—marīmartti and marimṛdyate [grammar] (cf. [Greek] ἀ-μαλδ-ύνω and under mṛdu.)

3) 2. mṛd f. earth, soil, clay, loam, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc., etc.

4) a piece of e°, lump of clay, [Manu-smṛti v, 136]

5) a kind of fragrant e°, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) aluminous slate, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mṛḍ (मृड्):—(śa) mṛḍati 6. a. To delight, to rejoice. (ga) mṛḍṇāti 9. a. To rejoice; to grind or pound.

2) Mṛd (मृद्):—mṛdnāti 9. a. To grind to powder; to tread on, to bruise.

3) [(d-t)] 5. f. Earth, soil.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mṛd (मृद्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Khaḍḍa, Caḍḍa, Pannāḍa, Parimala, Parihaṭṭa, Maḍḍa, Madda, Miu.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mrid in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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