Mridu, Mṛdu: 29 definitions


Mridu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Mṛdu can be transliterated into English as Mrdu or Mridu, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Mradu.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Mṛdu (मृदु, “soft”).—One of the twenty Gurvādiguṇa, or, ‘ten opposing pairs of qualities of drugs’.—Mṛdu is the characteristic of a drug referring to the ‘softness’, while its opposing quality, Kaṭhina, refers to its ‘hardness’. It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

The quality of Mṛdu, present in drugs and herbs, increases the Kapha (bodily fluids, or ‘phlegm’). It exhibits a predominant presence of the elements Ether (ākāśa).

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Mṛdu (मृदु, “soft”) refers to one of the eight kinds of Vīrya (potency), representing characteristics of medicinal drugs, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “the rasa, vīrya and vipāka of the drugs should be noted (studied) carefully. [...] By vīrya [eg., Mṛdu], the working capacity and potency is meant”.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Mṛdu (मृदु):—Softness / mildness; One of the 20 gurvadi gunas. caused due activated akash & jala; denotes physiological & pharmacological softness & mildness; causes relaxation; relieves burning sensation.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Mṛdu (मृदु) is another name for Gṛhakanyā, a medicinal plant commonly identified with Aloe vera var. chinensis Baker from the Asphodelaceae family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.47-49 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Mṛdu and Gṛhakanyā, there are a total of twenty-one Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India

Mṛdu (मृदु, “soft”) and Kaṭhina (“hard”) refers to one of the ten counterpart-couples of the twenty Śārīraguṇa (or Gurvādiguṇa), which refers to the “twenty qualities of the body”—where guṇa (property) represents one of the six divisions of dravya (drugs).—Śārīraka-guṇas are twenty in number. There are ten guṇas with their opposite guṇas. [...] Mṛdu (“soft”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of water and the associated actions of “loosening/ślathana”; while Kaṭhina (“hard”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of earth and is associated with the action “hardening/dried/dṛḍhīkaraṇa”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mṛdu (मृदु) refers to a “soft cushion”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.4.—Accordingly, as the Gods eulogized Umā (Durgā/Satī) with devotion:—“[...] thus eulogised by the Gods, the Goddess Durgā, the mother of the universe, the destroyer of impassable distress, appeared in front of them. She was seated in a wonderful divine gem-set chariot over which a soft cushion had been spread (i.e., mṛdu-saṃstaraṇa) and which was decorated with tinkling ornaments”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Mṛdu (मृदु).—A Ṛtvik at Brahmā's yajña.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 106. 34.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Mṛdu (मृदु) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. XIV.8.23, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mṛdu) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Mṛdu (मृदु, “tender”) refers to one of the sixteen words that together make up the elā musical composition (prabandha), according to the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 67-84. Elā is an important subgenre of song and was regarded as an auspicious and important prabandha (composition) in ancient Indian music (gāndharva). According to nirukta analysis, the etymological meaning of elā can be explained as follows: a represents Viṣṇu, i represents Kāmadeva, la represents Lakṣmī.

Mṛdu is one of the sixteen words of elā and has a presiding deity named vijayā (the triumphant one) defined in the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi (“crest-jewel of music”), which is a 15th-century Sanskrit work on Indian musicology (gāndharvaśāstra).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Mṛdu (मृदु).—Soft in utterance ; the term is used in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya for the क्षैप्र, प्रश्लिष्ट, तैरोव्यञ्जन (kṣaipra, praśliṣṭa, tairovyañjana), and पादवृत्त (pādavṛtta) varieties of the circumflex accent (स्वरित (svarita)) out of which the पादवृत्त (pādavṛtta) is the softest (मृदुतम (mṛdutama)) and consequently always called मृदु (mṛdu), while the others are called मृदु (mṛdu) only with respect to the preceding one in the order given above; viz.अभिनिहत, क्षैप्र (abhinihata, kṣaipra)सर्वतीक्ष्णोभिनिहतःप्राश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम् । ततो मृदुतरौ स्वारौ जात्यक्षेप्रावुभौ स्मृतौ ॥ ततो मृदुततः स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते । पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् (sarvatīkṣṇobhinihataḥprāśliṣṭastadanantaram | tato mṛdutarau svārau jātyakṣeprāvubhau smṛtau || tato mṛdutataḥ svārastairovyañjana ucyate | pādavṛtto mṛdutamastvetatsvārabalābalam) Uvvata on V.Pr. I. !25;

2) Mṛdu.—Soft, as opposed to hard; the term is used in connection with the first,third and fifth consonants of the five classes.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Mṛdu (मृदु) refers to a “mild” (rulership), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The years of Jupiter (bṛhaspati) take their names from the several Nakṣatras in which he reappears after his conjunction with the Sun; and these names are identical with the names of the lunar months. [...] In the Caitra year of Jupiter, there will be slight rain, good food and happiness; rulers will become mild [i.e., mṛdu]; leguminous grains will increase and fair men will suffer miseries”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Mṛdu (मृदु) refers to a “soft (cushion)”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Visualisation of Parameśvara]:—In a hidden sanctuary, the mantra master should sit on a soft cushion (mṛdu-āsana-parigraha) and should visualise himself as having the body of Parameśvara, as if [he were transformed into] Kāmeśvara, having no beginning and no end, shining like millions of suns. [...] ”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Mṛdu (मृदु) refers to “soft things”, according to Hemacandra’s Yogaśāstra (12.22-25): “Always sitting comfortably in an isolated, very clean and beautiful place, [the Yogin] whose whole body has become relaxed from the top of his crown to the tips of his feet, [so that] even [if he is] looking at a beautiful form [or] even hearing a voice, melodious and pleasing to the mind, even smelling lovely smells, even eating agreeable tastes, even touching soft things (mṛdu) [bhāvān spṛśannapi mṛdūn] [or] even not restraining the activity of his mind, his detachment is upheld and his confusion over sense objects is destroyed forever more. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Mṛdu (मृदु) refers to “soft” (e.g., ‘soft grass’), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXXII-XXXIV).—Accordingly, “When one is making fire by friction, first the flame takes fire on the soft grass (mṛdu-tṛṇa) and dried cow dung and, as the strength of the fire increases, it is able to consume big pieces of moist wood. It is the same for the concentration of loving-kindness (maitrī-samādhi): at the beginning, when one make the vows for loving-kindness, one applies them only to one’s friends; but when the mind of loving-kindness has grown, enemies and relatives become mixed up and one sees them all as experiencing happiness: this is because the dhyānas or samāpattis of loving-kindness have grown and are becoming complete”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Mṛdu (मृदु) refers to “tender” (flowers and fruits), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān teaches an offering manual]: “[...] All crops, all flowers and fruits will be well protected. [...] Until the stake is drawn out there will be comfort and plenty, and all crops, flowers and fruits develop. They will be juicy and tender (mṛdu). All Nāgas will constantly provide protection, shelter and safeguard. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Mridu in India is the name of a plant defined with Psidium guajava in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Syzygium ellipticum K. Schum. & Lauterb. (among others).

2) Mridu in Tanzania is also identified with Cordyla africana.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Flore pittoresque et médicale des Antilles. (1821)
· Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series (1958)
· Hist. Pl. Guiane (1775)
· Listados Florísticos de México (1983)
· Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands (1989)
· Biologia Centrali-Americana; … Botany (1880)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Mridu, for example pregnancy safety, side effects, chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mṛdu (मृदु).—a (S) mṛdula a S Soft. 2 Tender, pliant, flexile. 3 fig. Mild, bland, gentle, easy.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mṛdu (मृदु) [-mṛdula, -मृदुल].—a Soft; tender. Fig. Mild.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mṛdu (मृदु).—a. [mṛd-ku] (-du or -dvī f.; compar. mradīyas; superl. mradiṣṭha)

1) Soft, tender, supple, pliant, delicate; मृदु तीक्ष्णतरं यदुच्यते तदिदं मन्मथ दृश्यते त्वयि (mṛdu tīkṣṇataraṃ yaducyate tadidaṃ manmatha dṛśyate tvayi) M.3.2; अथवा मृदु वस्तु हिंसितुं मृदुनैवारभते प्रजान्तकः (athavā mṛdu vastu hiṃsituṃ mṛdunaivārabhate prajāntakaḥ) R.8.45,57; Ś.1.1; 4.11.

2) Soft, mild, gentle; न खरो न च भूयसा मृदुः (na kharo na ca bhūyasā mṛduḥ) R. 8.9; बाणं कृपामृदुमनाः प्रतिसंजहार (bāṇaṃ kṛpāmṛdumanāḥ pratisaṃjahāra) 9.57 'with his mind softened with pity'; तं कृपामृदुरवेक्ष्य भार्गवम् (taṃ kṛpāmṛduravekṣya bhārgavam) 11.83; Ś.6.1; महर्षिर्मृदुतामगच्छत् (maharṣirmṛdutāmagacchat) R.5.54 'relented'; खातमूल- मनिलो नदीरयैः पातयत्यपि मृदुस्तटद्रुमम् (khātamūla- manilo nadīrayaiḥ pātayatyapi mṛdustaṭadrumam) 11.76 'even a soft or gentle breeze' &c.

3) Weak, feeble; सर्वथा मृदुरसौ राजा (sarvathā mṛdurasau rājā) H.3; ततस्ते मृदवोऽभूवन् गन्धर्वाः शरपीडिताः (tataste mṛdavo'bhūvan gandharvāḥ śarapīḍitāḥ) Mb.

4) Moderate.

5) Blunt.

6) Slow.

7) (In astr.) Situated in the upper apsis.

-duḥ The planet Saturn.

-du n.

1) Softness, gentleness.

2) A kind of iron.

-du ind. Softly, gently, in a sweet manner; स्वनसि मृदु कर्णान्तिकचरः (svanasi mṛdu karṇāntikacaraḥ) Ś.1.23; वादयते मृदु वेणुम् (vādayate mṛdu veṇum) Gītagovinda 5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mṛdu (मृदु).—mfn. (-duḥ-dvī-du) 1. Soft. 2. Blunt, not sharp. 3. Gentle, mild. 4. Slow, weak. f. (-dvī) The brown grape. m.

(-duḥ) The planet Saturn. E. mṛd to rub, aff. ku, and the semi-vowel changed to its congener.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mṛdu (मृदु).—[mṛd + u], adj., f. dvī ([Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 2, 2), comparat. mradīyaṃs, superl. mradiṣṭha. 1. Soft, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 303; iii. [distich] 253; [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 56, 153 (-pūrvam, adv. At first mildly). 2. Mild, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 85. 3. Weak, [Hitopadeśa] 81, 22. 4. Blunt. 5. Slow, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 4, 33.

— Cf. [Gothic.] and [Anglo-Saxon.] mild; [Latin] mollis; probably [Latin] bardus; [Latin] blandus.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mṛdu (मृदु).—([feminine] mṛdu & mṛdvī) soft, tender, delicate, mild, gentle, weak, moderate; [masculine] [neuter] softness, gentleness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mṛdu (मृदु):—[from mṛd] a mf(u or )n. soft, delicate, tender, pliant, mild, gentle, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc., etc.

2) [v.s. ...] weak, feeble, [Atharva-veda]

3) [v.s. ...] slight, moderate, [Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] slow (gait), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) situated in the upper apsis, [Gaṇitādhyāya]

6) [v.s. ...] m. the planet Saturn, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of a king and various other men, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa] (cf. g. bidādi)

8) [v.s. ...] (u) f. Aloe Perfoliata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [from mṛd] n. softness, mildness, gentleness, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (also m., [Pāṇini 2-2, 8], [vArttika] 3, [Patañjali])

10) [v.s. ...] cf. [Greek] βραδύς; [Latin] mollis.

11) Mṛdū (मृदू):—[from mṛd] in [compound] for mṛdu.

12) Mṛdu (मृदु):—b etc. See [column]2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mṛdu (मृदु):—[(du-dvī-du) a.] Soft, gentle, blunt. f. (dvī) The brown grape.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mṛdu (मृदु) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Mau, Maua, Māukka, Miu.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mridu in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mṛdu (मृदु) [Also spelled mradu]:—(a) soft; sweet; tender; gentle, mellow, mild; slow (as- [gati); ~kara] that which softens/mellows; ~[karaṇa] tempering, softening; ~[] softness; sweetness; mildness, gentleness; tenderness; mellowness; ~[bhāṣī] soft-spoken; —[recaka] laxative; —[vāta] slow and mild breeze.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mṛdu (ಮೃದು):—

1) [adjective] giving way easily under pressure, as a feather pillow or moist clay.

2) [adjective] easily cut, marked, shaped or worn away, as pine wood or pure gold.

3) [adjective] not hard for its kind; not as hard as is normal, desirable, etc.

4) [adjective] smooth or fine to the touch; not rough, harsh or coarse.

5) [adjective] easy to digest because free from roughage (said of a diet).

6) [adjective] having in solution few or none of the mineral salts that interfere with the lathering and cleansing properties of soap (said of water); soft.

7) [adjective] mild, gentle or temperate, as a breeze.

8) [adjective] weak or delicate; not strong or vigorous; esp., not able to endure hardship.

9) [adjective] kind or gentle; lenient or compassionate; easily impressed, influenced or imposed upon.

10) [adjective] gentle; low; not loud or harsh (said of sound).

11) [adjective] not sharp or keen; lacking sharpness; blunt.

--- OR ---

Mṛdu (ಮೃದು):—

1) [noun] something that is soft, locking hardness to extent of becoming weak; gentleness.

2) [noun] the quality of being so.

3) [noun] the planet Saturn.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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