Margana, Mārgaṇā, Mārgaṇa: 16 definitions


Margana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mārgaṇa (मार्गण) refers to the “arrows” (of Kāma—i.e., love), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.9.—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Sage Nārada:—“[...] The lord was completely agitated due to Satī’s love and separation from her. He performed his penance there. Pārvatī engaged herself in His service continuously accompanied by two of her maids. Although the lord Śiva was hit and wounded by the arrows of Kāma [i.e., mārgaṇa] who was sent thither by the gods to enchant Him, He was not swayed at all. Burning Kāma there by His fiery eye, on remembering my words, the lord became angry with me and vanished from the scene. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Margana in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Mārgaṇa (मार्गण) refers to the “search (for quarry)” (during hunting), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the outlines of hawking]: “[...] At the time of the search (mārgaṇa), the circle should move slowly along, and after the fall of the bird still slower. Those who proceed in front of the horsemen, with canes ine their hands, should throw, by Muṣṭimoka, Dhūtis and Ṭonās against quails and other quarry. Their motion, on account of their swiftness, cannot be perceived. They add to the enjoyment of the spectators by darting obliquely (?) on the quarry, which is discovered by the noise, cīcīkucī they make when they are captured. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Mārgaṇā (मार्गणा) or “soul-quest” refers to “fourteen special conditions or characteristics by means of which the mundane souls are sought, distinguished, and investigated”, according to chapter 4.4 [anantanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—(Note: cf. Gommaṭasāra, 141-2 and Dravyasaṃgraha, p. 39).

Accordingly, as Anantanātha said:—“[...] These classes of Jīvas which I have described are fourteen. The same number of mārgaṇās are known by the following names: condition of existence, senses, body, activity, sex, knowledge, anger, etc. (the kaṣāyas), self-control, taking and digesting food, perception, soul-color, state of being capable of emancipation, right-belief, and intelligence. [...]”.

Source: Shodhganga: The Ethico religious doctrines as discussed in Karakanda Cariu a study

Mārgaṇā (मार्गणा).—The conditions of the Jīvās are technically known as mārganās. Nemicandra discusses the mārgaṇās or “soul quests” in his Gommaṭasāra Jīvakāṇḍa in an exhaustive way. Similarly Brahmadeva has written a commentary on the 13th gāthā of Dravyasaṅgraha, pertaining to the doctrine of mārgaṇā.

The mārgaṇās give us the detailed knowledge of souls. The fourteen mārgaṇās are.

  1. gati (condition of existance),
  2. indriya (sense),
  3. kāya (embodiment),
  4. yoga (vibratory activity),
  5. veda (sex inclination),
  6. kaṣāya (passion),
  7. jñāna (knowledge),
  8. saṃyama (control),
  9. darśana (conation),
  10. leśya (thought-point),
  11. bhavyatva (capacity of attaining liberation from Karmic bondage),
  12. saṃyaktva (Right belief),
  13. saṃjñitva (Rationality),
  14. āhāra (assimilation of material particles by Jīvās to preserve bodies).
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Mārgaṇa.—(EI 24), a begger. Note: mārgaṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mārgaṇa (मार्गण).—a. [mārga-lyu lyuṭ vā] Seeking, searching or looking out for.

2) Inquiring.

3) Asking, begging.

-ṇam, -ṇā 1 Begging, requesting, soliciting.

2) Seeking, looking out for, searching.

3) Investigating, inquiry, examination.

-ṇaḥ 1 A beggar, supplicant, mendicant.

2) An arrow; दुर्वाराः स्मरमार्गणाः (durvārāḥ smaramārgaṇāḥ) K. P.1; अभेदि तत्तादृ- गनङ्गमार्गणैर्यदस्य पौष्पैरपि धैर्यकञ्चुकम् (abhedi tattādṛ- ganaṅgamārgaṇairyadasya pauṣpairapi dhairyakañcukam) N.1.46; Vikr.1.77; R.9.17,65.

3) The number 'five'.

-ṇam 1 Investigation, search; शिलोच्चये तस्य विमार्गणं नयः (śiloccaye tasya vimārgaṇaṃ nayaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 14.9.

2) Solicitation, the act of begging.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mārgaṇā (मार्गणा).—(Sanskrit Lex. id., Sanskrit °ṇa, nt.; Pali magganā), act of searching, seeking: °ṇā kāritā (mss. mārgeṇā karitā; kar° may be kept) Mahāvastu ii.112.14 (prose).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārgaṇa (मार्गण).—mfn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) Mendicant, asking, begging, a beggar. n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. Asking, soliciting, begging. 2. Research, inquiry. 3. Affection, affectionate solicitation or inquiry. m.

(-ṇaḥ) 1. An arrow. 2. A suppliant, a solicitor. 3. The number “five.” E. mārg to ask, to seek, aff. lyuṭ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārgaṇa (मार्गण).—i. e. mārg + ana, I. adj. Begging, a beggar. Ii. m. 1. A solicitor. 2. An arrow, Chr. 34, 15. Iii. n. 1. Searching, [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 71. 2. Begging.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārgaṇa (मार्गण).—[adjective] asking, requiring (—°). —[masculine] beggar, suppliant; arrow ([abstract] [feminine]), [neuter] searching, inquiring.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mārgaṇa (मार्गण):—[from mārg] mfn. (ifc.) desiring, requiring, asking, [Mahābhārata]

2) [v.s. ...] seeking, investigating, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

3) [v.s. ...] m. a beggar, suppliant, mendicant, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

4) [v.s. ...] an arrow, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] a symbolical expression for the number 5 (derived from the 5 arrows of the god of love), [Sūryasiddhānta]

6) [v.s. ...] n. the act of seeking or searching for, investigation, research, inquiry, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa] [commentator or commentary] [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] n. the act of begging, solicitation, affectionate sol° or inquiry (also f(ā). ), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] n. a bow (16384 Hastas long?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārgaṇa (मार्गण):—[(ṇaḥ-ṇī-ṇaṃ) a.] Mendicant, asking. n. Begging; inquiry; affection. m. An arrow; a solicitor.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mārgaṇa (मार्गण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Maggaṇa, Maggaṇayā, Maggaṇā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Margana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mārgaṇa (ಮಾರ್ಗಣ):—

1) [noun] a careful search or examination; systematic inquiry; an investigation.

2) [noun] the act of begging or beseeching earnestly for.

3) [noun] a man who bets for charity; a beggar.

4) [noun] an arrow.

5) [noun] (masc.) a follower of a right path.

6) [noun] an antagonist, enemy.

7) [noun] a soul undergoing punishment in a hell.

8) [noun] the tall, woody, hard, springy, jointed and often hollow stem of the grass of the sub-family Bambusoideae; a bamboo.

9) [noun] (jain.) the path a person has find for himself (in spiritual life) and condition of that person in that stage.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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See also (Relevant definitions)

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