Mardava, Mārdava: 16 definitions
Mardava means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Mardav.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Mārdava (मार्दव).—Softness of the voice characterizing the pronunciation of a grave vowel; cf मार्दवं स्वरस्य मृदुता स्निग्धता (mārdavaṃ svarasya mṛdutā snigdhatā) ; also cf. अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता खस्येतिं नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य (anvavasargo mārdavamurutā khasyetiṃ nīcaiḥkarāṇi śabdasya) M.Bh. on P.I.2.29, 30; cf. also, T. Pr. XXII.10।
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Mārdava (मार्दव):—Softening; caused due to Jala mahabhuta predominance.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā
Mārdava (मार्दव) (Cf. Atimārdava) refers to “gentleness”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “Lakṣmī does not dwell in the Brāhmaṇa alone, because of [his] excessive gentleness (atimārdava). Nor does She wish to remain in the Kṣatra alone (i.e. a member of the second social class to which also kings traditionally belong), being fearful of [his] excessive fierceness”.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Mārdava (मार्दव, “humility”) refers to one of the ten-fold dharma (i.e., Yatidharma) capable of leading across saṃsāra, according to chapter 3.3 [sumatinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, as Sumatinātha said:—“The sources of pride—youth, power, beauty, etc.—have become subdued from penance, like evil spirits of a sorceror reduced to servitude from the power to summon them. Yatidharma, handed down orally by the Blessed Ones, is the best boat without impediments for crossing the ocean of saṃsāra. [...] Humility (mārdava) is the avoidance of the fault of pride by the destruction of conceit (māna). [...] So the ten-fold dharma, like a spotless wishing-jewel, capable of leading across saṃsāra, is attained in the world by merit”.
2) Mārdava (मार्दव, “humility”) is the direct counterpart of Māna (‘conceit’) which refers to one of the four passions (kaṣāyas) of creatures, according to chapter 4.5 [dharmanātha-caritra].
Accordingly, as Dharma-nātha said in his sermon on the kaṣāyas:—“[...] Creatures’ passions are four-fold: anger (krodha), conceit (māna), deceit (māyā), and greed (lobha); and each of them is divided into sañjvalana, etc. [...] The tree of conceit (māna) which makes the branch of faults grow, bending down the roots of the virtues, must be rooted up by the floods of the river of humility. Humility, called mārdava, wards off arrogance; furthermore, arrogance is the very form of conceit, not supernumerary. Wherever arrogance, in the sphere of caste, etc, touches the heart, then one should resort to humility as an antidote to it. Everywhere one should show humility, especially to honored persons, by which one would avoid the evil of lack of respect to those entitled to it. [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
mārdava (मार्दव).—n (S) Softness. 2 fig. Mildness, gentleness, blandness. See under yōgadharma.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
mārdava (मार्दव).—n Softness. Fig. Mildness.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Mārdava (मार्दव).—[mṛdorbhāvaḥ aṇ]
1) Softness (lit. and fig.), pliancy, weakness; अभितप्तमयोऽपि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु (abhitaptamayo'pi mārdavaṃ bhajate kaiva kathā śarīriṣu) R.8.43 'becomes soft'; स्वशरीरमार्दवम् (svaśarīramārdavam) Kumārasambhava 5. 18.
2) Mildness, indulgence, gentleness, leniency; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 16.2.
Derivable forms: mārdavam (मार्दवम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Mārdava (मार्दव).—adj. (= Pali maddava; in Sanskrit only as nt. abstract n., the adj. is mṛdu), mild, gentle: associated with mṛdu, as Pali maddava with mudu(ka), in Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 324.3 and 325.9 (verses) mṛdu mārdavāś ca (what difference is there in meaning between them?); also with (Sanskrit) ārjava, Mahāvyutpatti 2364 (follows ārjava); ārjavu °vaś ca Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 287.3 (verse); in Lalitavistara 38.4 (verse) read with v.l. sadārjavā mārdavāś ca; °vāḥ Mahāvastu i.133.9 (prose); Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 66.9; °vā (f.) Gaṇḍavyūha 404.15 (prose).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mārdava (मार्दव).—i. e. mṛdu + a, n. Softness,
Mārdava (मार्दव).—[neuter] softness, meekness, kindness.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Mārdava (मार्दव):—m. ([from] mṛdu) [patronymic] [gana] bidādi
2) a [particular] mixed caste, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([probably] [wrong reading] for mārgava q.v.)
3) n. (ifc. f(ā). ) softness ([literally] and [figuratively]), pliancy, weakness, gentleness, kindness, leniency towards (with [genitive case] e.g. mārdava-sarva-bhūtānām, leniency towards all beings), [Āpastamba; Yājñavalkya; Rāmāyaṇa etc.]Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Mārdava (मार्दव) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Maddava.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Mārdava (मार्दव) [Also spelled mardav]:—(nm) softness; gentleness; compassionateness; leniency; mildness.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] the quality of being soft; softness.
2) [noun] the quality of being pliable, tender; pliancy.
3) [noun] the quality of being gentle, kind, lenient and sensitive; gentleness.
4) [noun] (jain.) the quality or policy of not assuming, pretentious or being modest about one’s knowledge, family, wealth, beauty or handsomeness, etc.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Full-text (+5): Mardavayana, Mardavabhava, Anumardava, Sumardava, Maddava, Mardavate, Samardava, Mardavikri, Margava, Mardavikar, Mardav, Ashtopaya, Pharpharika, Samiya, Atimardava, Dharma, Uruta, Pravesha, Yogadharma, Taikshnya.
Search found 7 books and stories containing Mardava, Mārdava; (plurals include: Mardavas, Mārdavas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 9.6 - The ten virtues (dharma) < [Chapter 9 - Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas]
Verse 6.18 - The nature of being mild or gentle < [Chapter 6 - Influx of Karmas]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Tattva 6: Saṃvara (methods of impeding karma) < [Appendix 1.4: The nine tattvas]
Part 9: Sermon on yatidharma < [Chapter III - Sumatināthacaritra]
Part 21: Sermon on the kaṣāyas < [Chapter V - Śrī Dharmanāthacaritra]
Jnaneshwari (Bhavartha Dipika) (by Ramchandra Keshav Bhagwat)
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
A study of the philosophy of Jainism (by Deepa Baruah)
Natyashastra (English) (by Bharata-muni)