Mardava, Mārdava: 18 definitions


Mardava means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Mardav.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Mārdava (मार्दव).—Softness of the voice characterizing the pronunciation of a grave vowel; cf मार्दवं स्वरस्य मृदुता स्निग्धता (mārdavaṃ svarasya mṛdutā snigdhatā) ; also cf. अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता खस्येतिं नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य (anvavasargo mārdavamurutā khasyetiṃ nīcaiḥkarāṇi śabdasya) M.Bh. on P.I.2.29, 30; cf. also, T. Pr. XXII.10।

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Mārdava (मार्दव):—Softening; caused due to Jala mahabhuta predominance.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Mārdava (मार्दव) (Cf. Atimārdava) refers to “gentleness”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “Lakṣmī does not dwell in the Brāhmaṇa alone, because of [his] excessive gentleness (atimārdava). Nor does She wish to remain in the Kṣatra alone (i.e. a member of the second social class to which also kings traditionally belong), being fearful of [his] excessive fierceness”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Mardava in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Mārdava (मार्दव) refers to one of the ten Yamas (disciplines) prescribed for forest dwelling, as mentioned in the the Vaikhānasasmārtasūtra.—The Mānasollāsa verse 9.21-24ab lists thirty Yamas and Niyamas. The Vaikhānasasmārtasūtra (8.4), whose date has been estimated between the fourth and eighth centuries, is the earliest source for a list of twenty Yamas and Niyamas [e.g., mārdava]. These were prescribed to a sage at the forest dwelling (vanāśrama) stage of life.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Mārdava (मार्दव, “humility”) refers to one of the ten-fold dharma (i.e., Yatidharma) capable of leading across saṃsāra, according to chapter 3.3 [sumatinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as Sumatinātha said:—“The sources of pride—youth, power, beauty, etc.—have become subdued from penance, like evil spirits of a sorceror reduced to servitude from the power to summon them. Yatidharma, handed down orally by the Blessed Ones, is the best boat without impediments for crossing the ocean of saṃsāra. [...] Humility (mārdava) is the avoidance of the fault of pride by the destruction of conceit (māna). [...] So the ten-fold dharma, like a spotless wishing-jewel, capable of leading across saṃsāra, is attained in the world by merit”.

2) Mārdava (मार्दव, “humility”) is the direct counterpart of Māna (‘conceit’) which refers to one of the four passions (kaṣāyas) of creatures, according to chapter 4.5 [dharmanātha-caritra].

Accordingly, as Dharma-nātha said in his sermon on the kaṣāyas:—“[...] Creatures’ passions are four-fold: anger (krodha), conceit (māna), deceit (māyā), and greed (lobha); and each of them is divided into sañjvalana, etc. [...] The tree of conceit (māna) which makes the branch of faults grow, bending down the roots of the virtues, must be rooted up by the floods of the river of humility. Humility, called mārdava, wards off arrogance; furthermore, arrogance is the very form of conceit, not supernumerary. Wherever arrogance, in the sphere of caste, etc, touches the heart, then one should resort to humility as an antidote to it. Everywhere one should show humility, especially to honored persons, by which one would avoid the evil of lack of respect to those entitled to it. [...]”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Mārdava (मार्दव) refers to “humility” (towards pride), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Tolerance of anger and humility (mārdava) towards pride, moreover straightforwardness towards deception [and] abandonment of attachment, these are the enemies of desire respectively. Yogis continually drive away desire and dislike through equanimity or through the state of non-attachment , and they drive away wrong faith through the application of right faith”.

Synonyms: Mānābhāva.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mārdava (मार्दव).—n (S) Softness. 2 fig. Mildness, gentleness, blandness. See under yōgadharma.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mārdava (मार्दव).—n Softness. Fig. Mildness.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mārdava (मार्दव).—[mṛdorbhāvaḥ aṇ]

1) Softness (lit. and fig.), pliancy, weakness; अभितप्तमयोऽपि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु (abhitaptamayo'pi mārdavaṃ bhajate kaiva kathā śarīriṣu) R.8.43 'becomes soft'; स्वशरीरमार्दवम् (svaśarīramārdavam) Kumārasambhava 5. 18.

2) Mildness, indulgence, gentleness, leniency; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 16.2.

Derivable forms: mārdavam (मार्दवम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mārdava (मार्दव).—adj. (= Pali maddava; in Sanskrit only as nt. abstract n., the adj. is mṛdu), mild, gentle: associated with mṛdu, as Pali maddava with mudu(ka), in Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 324.3 and 325.9 (verses) mṛdu mārdavāś ca (what difference is there in meaning between them?); also with (Sanskrit) ārjava, Mahāvyutpatti 2364 (follows ārjava); ārjavu °vaś ca Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 287.3 (verse); in Lalitavistara 38.4 (verse) read with v.l. sadārjavā mārdavāś ca; °vāḥ Mahāvastu i.133.9 (prose); Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 66.9; °vā (f.) Gaṇḍavyūha 404.15 (prose).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārdava (मार्दव).—i. e. mṛdu + a, n. Softness, Chr. 57, 24; [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārdava (मार्दव).—[neuter] softness, meekness, kindness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mārdava (मार्दव):—m. ([from] mṛdu) [patronymic] [gana] bidādi

2) a [particular] mixed caste, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([probably] [wrong reading] for mārgava q.v.)

3) n. (ifc. f(ā). ) softness ([literally] and [figuratively]), pliancy, weakness, gentleness, kindness, leniency towards (with [genitive case] e.g. mārdava-sarva-bhūtānām, leniency towards all beings), [Āpastamba; Yājñavalkya; Rāmāyaṇa etc.]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mārdava (मार्दव) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Maddava.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mardava in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Mardava in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mārdava (मार्दव) [Also spelled mardav]:—(nm) softness; gentleness; compassionateness; leniency; mildness.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mārdava (ಮಾರ್ದವ):—

1) [noun] the quality of being soft; softness.

2) [noun] the quality of being pliable, tender; pliancy.

3) [noun] the quality of being gentle, kind, lenient and sensitive; gentleness.

4) [noun] (jain.) the quality or policy of not assuming, pretentious or being modest about one’s knowledge, family, wealth, beauty or handsomeness, etc.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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