Dvesha, Dveṣa: 17 definitions

Introduction

Dvesha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Dveṣa can be transliterated into English as Dvesa or Dvesha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Dveṣa (द्वेष, “aversion”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to “hate” and represents a type of Ādhyātmika pain of the mental (mānasa) type, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhyātmika and its subdivisions (eg., dveṣa) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhibhautika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Dveṣa (द्वेष) or Vidveṣa or Prītināśana refers to “provoking enmity” which is accomplished by performing mantrasādhana (preparatory procedures) beginning with japamālā using a rosary bead made from the nails of sādhya’s body, according to the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.42. Accordingly, “a rosary made from the nails of sādhya’s body and strung with a string made from hair is [suitable] for the dveṣa (syn. vidveṣa, provoking enmity) ritual”.

According to the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.49, “One should recite a mantra using the index finger and thumb for the vidveṣa and uccāṭa (extirpating enemies)”. According to verse 1.52, “for the dveṣa, one should recite a mantra in the third yāma in grīṣma season”. According to verse 1.53, the prītināśana (syn. vidveṣa, provoking enmity) should be performed at the noon. According to verse 1.56, “the 8th, full moon day, 1st, or 9th, whichever day is a Friday or a Saturday are recommended for the vidveṣa ritual”. According to verse 1.64, the kukkuta (wild cock) posture (āsana) is recommended for vidveṣa. According to verse 1.65, performing in a cemetery is recommended for vidveṣa.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Dveṣa (द्वेष, “aversion”) and Dveṣa (aversion) refers to two of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to Praśastapāda and all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Icchā (desire) and dveṣa (aversion) is also a pair of qualities (guṇa) like sukha and duḥkha. These two are also correlated qualities, but they are not contradictory to each. That means one is not the negation of the other; but both are positive qualities.

About dveṣa (aversion) Praśastapāda says that it has a nature of burning. Dveṣa is that because of which the self feels as if it is burning. It is caused by the conjunction of ātmā with manas, pain and recollection of painful objects. Dveṣa is the cause of prayatna, smṛti, dharma and adharma. There are different kinds of dveṣa, such as krodha (anger), droha (malevolence), manyuḥ (resentment) etc.

Annaṃbhaṭṭa gives very short definition of icchā and dveṣa. Icchā is longing and dveṣa is irritation. He has not elaborated these definitions. Viśvanātha appears to be a little more elaborate in these respects. In his view craving for painlessness and pleasure is desire and it arises from the knowledge of them. Desire is twofold–that relating to the result and that relating to the means. Result is twofold, viz., pleasure and absence of pain. The cause of the desire for the result is the knowledge of the desire. The desire for the means is caused by the knowledge of its conduciveness to what is desirable. According to Viśvanātha, dveṣa, on the other hand, is caused by the notion of producing something repugnant.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to “(the urges of) hatred”, mentioned in verse 4.25 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] He, however, who desires welfare both after his death and here shall always suppress the urges of avarice, jealousy, hatred, envy, passion [viz., lobha-īrṣyā-dveṣa-mātsarya-rāga], etc. after having subjugated his senses [viz., jitendriya]”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Dveṣa, (द्वेष, “hatred”):—One of the three poisons (triviṣa).—Hatred is of two kinds:

  1. bad hatred (mithyādveṣa)
  2. and simple hatred
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Dveṣa (द्वेष, “hatred”) refers to one of the five Kulas (families), according to Guhyasamāja.—[...] The families (kula) owe allegiance to their progenitors who are known as Kuleśas or Lords of Families. In the Guhyasamāja it is said: “The five Kulas (families) are the Dveṣa (hatred), Moha (delusion), Rāga (attachment), Cintāmaṇi (Wishing Gem), and Samaya, (convention) which conduce to the attainment of all desires and emancipation”.

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Dveṣa (द्वेष) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Dveṣī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Dveṣa] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Dveṣa (द्वेष, “hatred”) refers to the “three roots of unwholesomeness” (akuśalamūla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 139). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., dveṣa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Dvesa.—(CII 3), an epithet applied to land; a term of un- certain significance. Note: dvesa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dvēṣa (द्वेष).—m (S) Spite, malice, rancor. 2 Hatred or dislike of; displeasure with; offence at. v kara g. of o. dvēṣa ugaviṇēṃ To gratify malice or hatred; to take one's revenge. dvēṣa vāgaviṇēṃ To cherish (keep stirring or working) malice. Ex. itakā dvēṣa vāga- vīta manīṃ || parī laukikārtha yēūni baisē kīrttanīṃ ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dvēṣa (द्वेष).—m Spite. Hatred. dvēṣa ugaviṇēṃ To gratify malice or hatred; to take one's revenge. dvēṣa vāgaviṇēṃ To cherish malice.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dveṣa (द्वेष).—[dviṣ-bhāve ghañ]

1) Hate, dislike, abhorrence, repugnance, distaste; Ś.5.18; इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्थे रागद्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ (indriyasyendriyasyārthe rāgadveṣau vyavasthitau) Bg.3.34;7.27; so अन्नद्वेषः, भक्तद्वेषः (annadveṣaḥ, bhaktadveṣaḥ) &c.

2) Enmity, hostility, malignity; अकन्येति तु यः कन्यां ब्रूयाद् द्वेषेण मानवः (akanyeti tu yaḥ kanyāṃ brūyād dveṣeṇa mānavaḥ) Ms.8.225.

Derivable forms: dveṣaḥ (द्वेषः).

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Dveṣa (द्वेष).—&c. See under द्विष् (dviṣ).

Derivable forms: dveṣaḥ (द्वेषः).

See also (synonyms): dveṣaṇa, dveṣya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dveṣa (द्वेष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) Hate, enmity. E. dviṣa to hate, affix ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dveṣa (द्वेष).—i. e. dviṣ + a, m. 1. Hatred, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 163. 2. Abhorrence, repentance, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 66, 2. 4. Malignity, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 225.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dveṣa (द्वेष).—[masculine] aversion, hate, dislike.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dveṣa (द्वेष):—[from dviṣ] a m. hatred, dislike, repugnance, enmity to ([compound]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (ṣaṃ-√kṛ, to show enmity against ([dative case]), [Pañcatantra iii, 160]).

2) b etc. See above.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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