Dvesha, Dveṣa: 30 definitions


Dvesha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Dveṣa can be transliterated into English as Dvesa or Dvesha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Dwesh.

In Hinduism

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Dveṣa (द्वेष, “aversion”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to “hate” and represents a type of Ādhyātmika pain of the mental (mānasa) type, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhyātmika and its subdivisions (e.g., dveṣa) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhibhautika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Dveṣa (द्वेष) or Vidveṣa or Prītināśana refers to “provoking enmity” which is accomplished by performing mantrasādhana (preparatory procedures) beginning with japamālā using a rosary bead made from the nails of sādhya’s body, according to the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.42. Accordingly, “a rosary made from the nails of sādhya’s body and strung with a string made from hair is [suitable] for the dveṣa (syn. vidveṣa, provoking enmity) ritual”.

According to the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.49, “One should recite a mantra using the index finger and thumb for the vidveṣa and uccāṭa (extirpating enemies)”. According to verse 1.52, “for the dveṣa, one should recite a mantra in the third yāma in grīṣma season”. According to verse 1.53, the prītināśana (syn. vidveṣa, provoking enmity) should be performed at the noon. According to verse 1.56, “the 8th, full moon day, 1st, or 9th, whichever day is a Friday or a Saturday are recommended for the vidveṣa ritual”. According to verse 1.64, the kukkuta (wild cock) posture (āsana) is recommended for vidveṣa. According to verse 1.65, performing in a cemetery is recommended for vidveṣa.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Dveṣa (द्वेष, “aversion”) and Dveṣa (aversion) refers to two of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to Praśastapāda and all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Icchā (desire) and dveṣa (aversion) is also a pair of qualities (guṇa) like sukha and duḥkha. These two are also correlated qualities, but they are not contradictory to each. That means one is not the negation of the other; but both are positive qualities.

About dveṣa (aversion) Praśastapāda says that it has a nature of burning. Dveṣa is that because of which the self feels as if it is burning. It is caused by the conjunction of ātmā with manas, pain and recollection of painful objects. Dveṣa is the cause of prayatna, smṛti, dharma and adharma. There are different kinds of dveṣa, such as krodha (anger), droha (malevolence), manyuḥ (resentment) etc.

Annaṃbhaṭṭa gives very short definition of icchā and dveṣa. Icchā is longing and dveṣa is irritation. He has not elaborated these definitions. Viśvanātha appears to be a little more elaborate in these respects. In his view craving for painlessness and pleasure is desire and it arises from the knowledge of them. Desire is twofold–that relating to the result and that relating to the means. Result is twofold, viz., pleasure and absence of pain. The cause of the desire for the result is the knowledge of the desire. The desire for the means is caused by the knowledge of its conduciveness to what is desirable. According to Viśvanātha, dveṣa, on the other hand, is caused by the notion of producing something repugnant.

Nyaya book cover
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to “(the urges of) hatred”, mentioned in verse 4.25 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] He, however, who desires welfare both after his death and here shall always suppress the urges of avarice, jealousy, hatred, envy, passion [viz., lobha-īrṣyā-dveṣa-mātsarya-rāga], etc. after having subjugated his senses [viz., jitendriya]”.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Dveṣa (द्वेष):—Aversion to good

2) Aversion its one of the Suppresable urge. If any person fails to suppress will endup in psychological disorders.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to “aversion”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “(A true practitioner) is a hero (vīra) who exerts himself and is courageous. [...] He is always content and is loved by the Yoginīs. He is free of attachment, aversion [i.e., rāga-dveṣa-vinirmukta] and ego. He is loved by his (spiritual) clan (svagotra). He is wise and he observes the Rules. He is the joy of those who are devoted to him and always does what he promises to do. He who has these characteristics is an accomplished soul (siddha) (already) in his previous life. Otherwise he is not a Siddha and his tradition is not Kaula”.

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (shaktism)

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to “hate”, according to the 17th century Kaulagajamardana (“crushing the Kaula elephant”) authored by Kāśīnātha or Kṛṣṇānandācala.—Accordingly, [as Īśvara said to Pārvatī]: “Listen, O Pārvatī, I shall give a critique of the Pāṣaṇḍas. Knowing this, a wise man is not defeated by them. [...] He who wears ash from the cremation ground and delights in wine and flesh; he who performs such [rites] as bathing and the junctures for [mere] worldly rewards; and he who is the vilest [of them all,] having become a hater (dveṣa) of Viṣṇu [viṣṇudveṣaparo bhūtvā], destroys everything; [all of them] are called Pāṣaṇḍas. [Now,] my dear, hear about the Kāpālika. [...]”

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to “enmity (among friends)”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] By astonishing, [magical] feats such as [creating] enmity (dveṣa) [among friends], driving off and killing [adversaries] and by [tantric] mantras [of all kinds], [deluded] multiplicity multiplies. By all [yogic] practices, the various Bandhas and Mudrās, nothing but union with ignorance [is achieved]. Meditation on points in the body, the channels [of vitality] and the six Cakras is an error of mind. Therefore, having abandoned all that, [because it has been] constructed by the mind, resort to the no-mind [state]. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to “hatred”, representing one of the various actions of Māra, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 10).—Accordingly, “[Question: What are the works of Māra?]—[Answer].—[...] Māra has three types of actions: (a) play, laughter, idle chatter, singing, dancing, and everything that provokes desire; (b) iron fetters, beating, whipping, wounds, spikes, knives, slashing and everything that is caused by hatred (dveṣa); (c) [demented mortifications] such as being burned, being frozen, tearing out one’s hair, starving, jumping into the fire, throwing oneself into the water, falling onto spears and everything that results from stupidity”.

Note: Dveṣa (“hatred”) represents one of the three poisons (triviṣa) and is of two kinds:—

  1. bad hatred (mithyādveṣa)
  2. and simple hatred
Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to “aversion”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Son of good family, how does the knowledge (jñāna) of the Bodhisattva becomes like open space? [...] (6) he never deviates from the nature of the dharma which is without aversion (dveṣa), and teaches the dharma for other beings so that they overcome their aversion; (7) he never deviates from the nature of the dharma which is without bewilderment, and teaches the dharma for other beings so that they overcome their bewilderment (8) he never deviates from the nature of the dharma which is without impurity, and teaches the dharma for other beings so that they overcome their impurity; (9) he teaches the dharma in order to purify the vices of desire, aversion, and bewilderment; (10) he never looks down on the thought of desire, aversion, bewilderment, and impurity and also never looks up to the thought free from desire, aversion, bewilderment, and impurity”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to one of the male Vidyā-beings mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Dveṣa).

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Dveṣa (द्वेष, “hatred”) refers to one of the five Kulas (families), according to Guhyasamāja.—[...] The families (kula) owe allegiance to their progenitors who are known as Kuleśas or Lords of Families. In the Guhyasamāja it is said: “The five Kulas (families) are the Dveṣa (hatred), Moha (delusion), Rāga (attachment), Cintāmaṇi (Wishing Gem), and Samaya, (convention) which conduce to the attainment of all desires and emancipation”.

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Dveṣa (द्वेष) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Dveṣī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Dveṣa] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Dveṣa (द्वेष, “hatred”) refers to one of the “five afflictions” (pañcakleśa), according to the Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—The tiger skin (vyāghracarma) symbolizes a fully developed Yogī, able to route the Buddhist devil Māra, and save those overcome by the the Pañcakleśa, "The Five Afflictions", (the Mahāyāna version of the Triviṣa, "Three Poisons"). 1) moha, "delusion", 2) rāga, "passion", 3) dveṣa, "hatred", 4) māna, "pride", 5) īrṣyā, "jealousy.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Dveṣa (द्वेष, “hatred”) refers to the “three roots of unwholesomeness” (akuśalamūla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 139). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., dveṣa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Dveṣa (द्वेष) refers to “hate”, according to chapter 6.2 [aranātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as Ara said in his sermon on rāga and dveṣa:—“[...] People who are led by a mind whose knowledge has been destroyed by the darkness of love, etc., fall into hell like a blind man, led by a blind man, into a well. Passion (rati) for and joy (prīti) in objects, etc., are called love (raga); the wise call dislike (arati) and discontent (aprīti) with these same objects hate (dveṣa). These two, very powerful, a bond for all people, are known as the root and bulb of the tree of all pains. Who would be open-eyed with astonishment in happiness, who would be pitiable in sorrow, who would fail to reach emancipation, if there were no love and hate here? [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Dvesa.—(CII 3), an epithet applied to land; a term of un- certain significance. Note: dvesa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dvēṣa (द्वेष).—m (S) Spite, malice, rancor. 2 Hatred or dislike of; displeasure with; offence at. v kara g. of o. dvēṣa ugaviṇēṃ To gratify malice or hatred; to take one's revenge. dvēṣa vāgaviṇēṃ To cherish (keep stirring or working) malice. Ex. itakā dvēṣa vāga- vīta manīṃ || parī laukikārtha yēūni baisē kīrttanīṃ ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dvēṣa (द्वेष).—m Spite. Hatred. dvēṣa ugaviṇēṃ To gratify malice or hatred; to take one's revenge. dvēṣa vāgaviṇēṃ To cherish malice.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dveṣa (द्वेष).—[dviṣ-bhāve ghañ]

1) Hate, dislike, abhorrence, repugnance, distaste; Ś.5.18; इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्थे रागद्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ (indriyasyendriyasyārthe rāgadveṣau vyavasthitau) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 3.34;7.27; so अन्नद्वेषः, भक्तद्वेषः (annadveṣaḥ, bhaktadveṣaḥ) &c.

2) Enmity, hostility, malignity; अकन्येति तु यः कन्यां ब्रूयाद् द्वेषेण मानवः (akanyeti tu yaḥ kanyāṃ brūyād dveṣeṇa mānavaḥ) Manusmṛti 8.225.

Derivable forms: dveṣaḥ (द्वेषः).

--- OR ---

Dveṣa (द्वेष).—&c. See under द्विष् (dviṣ).

Derivable forms: dveṣaḥ (द्वेषः).

See also (synonyms): dveṣaṇa, dveṣya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dveṣa (द्वेष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) Hate, enmity. E. dviṣa to hate, affix ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dveṣa (द्वेष).—i. e. dviṣ + a, m. 1. Hatred, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 163. 2. Abhorrence, repentance, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 66, 2. 4. Malignity, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 225.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dveṣa (द्वेष).—[masculine] aversion, hate, dislike.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dveṣa (द्वेष):—[from dviṣ] a m. hatred, dislike, repugnance, enmity to ([compound]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (ṣaṃ-√kṛ, to show enmity against ([dative case]), [Pañcatantra iii, 160]).

2) b etc. See above.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dveṣa (द्वेष):—(ṣaḥ) 1. m. Hate; enmity.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dvesha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Dveṣa (द्वेष) [Also spelled dwesh]:—(nm) malice: aversion, repugnance; ill-will; malevolence; dislike, disaffection.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dvēṣa (ದ್ವೇಷ):—

1) [noun] a strong dislike or ill will; hatred.

2) [noun] the bitter attitude or feelings of an enemy or of mutual enemies; hostility; antagonism; enmity.

3) [noun] absence of passion or desire; passionlessness; desirelessness.

4) [noun] disagreeableness; a feeling of disgust; abomination.

5) [noun] intense anger; rage; fury; wrath.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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