Adhyaksha, Adhyakṣa: 19 definitions

Introduction:

Adhyaksha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Adhyakṣa can be transliterated into English as Adhyaksa or Adhyaksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Adhyaksh.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष) refers to “supervisor”, to be carefully appointed by the king. The supervisors should inspect all the acts of those persons who transact business. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Society State and Polity: A Survey

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष, “chiefs”) refers to the “chiefs of bureaucratic divisions” according to the ancient Indian science of Society and Polity, as defined in Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra (4th century BCE).—Kauṭilya has proposed a network of bureaucracy to manage the State. Bureaucracy had thirty divisions each headed by Chiefs, adhyakṣas. An important and large part of bureaucracy dealt with the necessity of state provision for strengthening trade and commerce. The bureaucracy was involved in organizing the quality control machinery, the system of currency, and the system of weights and measures.

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Adhyaksha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष) refers to a “presiding officer”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.37. Accordingly:—“[...] seeing Dakṣa and others entirely burnt, he laughed boisterously filling the three worlds with the sound. [...] On seeing Vīrabhadra who had fulfilled his task, lord Śiva was pleased and he made him the presiding officer of his Gaṇas [i.e, gaṇa-adhyakṣa]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Adhyaksha in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष) refers to the “guard (of a prison)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 48).—Accordingly, “[Question].—[Emptiness of beings (sattvaśūnyatā) and emptiness of dharmas] are two ways of teaching inner and outer emptiness. Which one is true? [Answer].—Both are true. For disciples of little knowledge and weak faculties, only the emptiness of beings is first taught, and for beings of great knowledge and keen faculties, the emptiness of dharmas is taught. [The Hīnayānist Śrāvaka] is like a prisoner (kārāstha) who breaks his bonds (bandhana), kills the prison guard (kārā-adhyakṣa) and can leave at will; [the Mahāyānist is like this other one] who, out of fear of brigands (caura), makes a hole in the wall and escapes (niḥsaraṇa)”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Adhyakṣa.—(EI 24; CII 4), the head of a department; the superintendent of a department; a superintendent or director; sometimes mentioned in the list of officials (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 80). Cf. Mahādhyakṣa. (IA 20), explained as the Dūtaka or Ājñapti, i. e. executor of grants. Note: adhyakṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Adhyaksha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष).—a (S) That superintends, supervises, directs; an overseer, director, comptroller. In comp. as dānādhyakṣa, dhanādhyakṣa, kōśādhyakṣa, dharmādhyakṣa, sabhādhyakṣa, sainyādhyakṣa, grāmādhyakṣa, dēśādhyakṣa, gṛhādhyakṣa, śālādhyakṣa, karmādhyakṣa, nyāyādhyakṣa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष).—a A director, overseer. President.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Adhyaksha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष).—a. [adhigataḥ akṣaṃ indriyaṃ vyavahāraṃ vā]

1) Perceptible to the senses, visible; यैरध्यक्षैरथ निजसखं नीरदं स्मारयद्भिः (yairadhyakṣairatha nijasakhaṃ nīradaṃ smārayadbhiḥ) Bv.4.17.

2) One who exercises supervision, presiding over. cf. प्रत्यक्षेऽधिकृतेऽध्यक्षः (pratyakṣe'dhikṛte'dhyakṣaḥ) | Nm.

-kṣaḥ 1 A superintendent, president, head, lord, master, controller, ruler. ततो राज्ञः कलत्राणि भ्रातॄणां चास्य सर्वतः । वाहनेषु समारोप्य अध्यक्षाः प्राद्रवन्भ- यात् (tato rājñaḥ kalatrāṇi bhrātṝṇāṃ cāsya sarvataḥ | vāhaneṣu samāropya adhyakṣāḥ prādravanbha- yāt) || Mahābhārata (Bombay) 9.29.94. मयाऽध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् (mayā'dhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sacarācaram) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 9.1; यदध्यक्षेण जगतां वयमारोपितास्त्वया (yadadhyakṣeṇa jagatāṃ vayamāropitāstvayā) Kumārasambhava 6.17; इत्यध्यक्षप्रचारो द्वितीयमधिकरणम् (ityadhyakṣapracāro dvitīyamadhikaraṇam) | Kau. A.2 oft. in comp.; गज°, सेना°, ग्राम°, द्वार° (gaja°, senā°, grāma°, dvāra°).

2) An eye-witness (Ved.)

3) Name of a plant (kṣīrikā) Mimusops Kauki. (Mar. dudhī).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष).—mfn.

(-kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) 1. Perceptible, present to the senses. 2. Superintending, presiding over. m.

(-kṣaḥ) 1. A superintendent in general, one of receipts and disbursements. 2. A plant, (a species of Mimusops.) See kṣīrikā. E. adhi and akṣa to pervade with ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष).—i. e. adhi-akṣa. I. adj. Perceptible, Bhāṣāp. 48. Ii. n. Perception, ib. 56; 149. Iii. m. A superintendent, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 186, 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष).—[masculine] eye-witness or superintendent.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष):—[=adhy-akṣa] mf(ā)n. perceptible to the senses, observable

2) [v.s. ...] exercising supervision

3) [v.s. ...] m. an eye-witness

4) [v.s. ...] an inspector, superintendent

5) [v.s. ...] the plant Mimusops Kauki (kṣīrikā).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष):—[tatpurusha compound] I. m. f. n.

(-kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣam) 1) Perceptible, present to the senses.

2) Superintending, presiding over. Ii. m.

(-kṣaḥ) 1) A superintendent in general, one of receipts and disbursements.

2) A plant (a species of Mimusops). See kṣīrikā and phalādhyakṣa. E. adhi and akṣa, or more correctly, as also mentioned in the native etym., akṣ with adhi, kṛt aff. ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष):—[adhya+kṣa] (kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) a. Perceptible, conspicuous. m. A superintendent.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ajbhakkha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Adhyaksha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Adhyaksha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष) [Also spelled adhyaksh]:—(a) president; chairman; speaker; head; ~[] presidentship; chairmanship; speakership; headship.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Adhyaksha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Adhyakṣa (ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷ):—

1) [adjective] that is seen; evident to the sensual organs.

2) [adjective] relating to or of the nature of, supervision; supervisory.

--- OR ---

Adhyakṣa (ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷ):—

1) [noun] a man who supervises; superintendent; manager; director.

2) [noun] the highest executive officer of an administrative system (as a government), a company, society, university, club, etc.; a chairman.

3) [noun] the chief executive of a republic having no prime minister or, in parliamentary governments, the formal head of the state; a president.

4) [noun] any presiding officer of a legislature of a meeting.

5) [noun] the tree Mimusops kauki of Sapotaceae family.

6) [noun] position, office and authority of a president of a chairman.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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