Adhyaksha, aka: Adhyakṣa; 7 Definition(s)


Adhyaksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Adhyakṣa can be transliterated into English as Adhyaksa or Adhyaksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष) refers to “supervisor”, to be carefully appointed by the king. The supervisors should inspect all the acts of those persons who transact business. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष, “chiefs”) refers to the “chiefs of bureaucratic divisions” according to the ancient Indian science of Society and Polity, as defined in Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra (4th century BCE).—Kauṭilya has proposed a network of bureaucracy to manage the State. Bureaucracy had thirty divisions each headed by Chiefs, adhyakṣas. An important and large part of bureaucracy dealt with the necessity of state provision for strengthening trade and commerce. The bureaucracy was involved in organizing the quality control machinery, the system of currency, and the system of weights and measures.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Society State and Polity: A Survey
Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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India history and geogprahy

Adhyakṣa.—(EI 24; CII 4), the head of a department; the superintendent of a department; a superintendent or director; sometimes mentioned in the list of officials (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 80). Cf. Mahādhyakṣa. (IA 20), explained as the Dūtaka or Ājñapti, i. e. executor of grants. Note: adhyakṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Adhyaksha in Marathi glossary... « previous · [A] · next »

adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष).—a (S) That superintends, supervises, directs; an overseer, director, comptroller. In comp. as dānādhyakṣa, dhanādhyakṣa, kōśādhyakṣa, dharmādhyakṣa, sabhādhyakṣa, sainyādhyakṣa, grāmādhyakṣa, dēśādhyakṣa, gṛhādhyakṣa, śālādhyakṣa, karmādhyakṣa, nyāyādhyakṣa.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष).—a A director, overseer. President.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Adhyaksha in Sanskrit glossary... « previous · [A] · next »

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष).—a. [adhigataḥ akṣaṃ indriyaṃ vyavahāraṃ vā]

1) Perceptible to the senses, visible; यैरध्यक्षैरथ निजसखं नीरदं स्मारयद्भिः (yairadhyakṣairatha nijasakhaṃ nīradaṃ smārayadbhiḥ) Bv.4.17.

2) One who exercises supervision, presiding over. cf. प्रत्यक्षेऽधिकृतेऽध्यक्षः (pratyakṣe'dhikṛte'dhyakṣaḥ) | Nm.

-kṣaḥ 1 A superintendent, president, head, lord, master, controller, ruler. ततो राज्ञः कलत्राणि भ्रातॄणां चास्य सर्वतः । वाहनेषु समारोप्य अध्यक्षाः प्राद्रवन्भ- यात् (tato rājñaḥ kalatrāṇi bhrātṝṇāṃ cāsya sarvataḥ | vāhaneṣu samāropya adhyakṣāḥ prādravanbha- yāt) || Mb.9.29.94. मयाऽध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् (mayā'dhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sacarācaram) Bg.9.1; यदध्यक्षेण जगतां वयमारोपितास्त्वया (yadadhyakṣeṇa jagatāṃ vayamāropitāstvayā) Ku.6.17; इत्यध्यक्षप्रचारो द्वितीयमधिकरणम् (ityadhyakṣapracāro dvitīyamadhikaraṇam) | Kau. A.2 oft. in comp.; गज°, सेना°, ग्राम°, द्वार° (gaja°, senā°, grāma°, dvāra°).

2) An eye-witness (Ved.)

3) Name of a plant (kṣīrikā) Mimusops Kauki. (Mar. dudhī).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Adhyakṣa (अध्यक्ष).—mfn.

(-kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) 1. Perceptible, present to the senses. 2. Superintending, presiding over. m.

(-kṣaḥ) 1. A superintendent in general, one of receipts and disbursements. 2. A plant, (a species of Mimusops.) See kṣīrikā. E. adhi and akṣa to pervade with ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 95 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Dharm-ādhyakṣa.—(EI 15; HD), generally explained as ‘a judge’; but he was probably also the sup...
Koṣādhyakṣa (कोषाध्यक्ष).—m. (-kṣaḥ) 1. A treasurer. A minister of finance. 2. Kuvera. E. koṣa,...
Dhanādhyakṣa (धनाध्यक्ष).—m. (-kṣaḥ) 1. A name of Kuyera. 2. A treasurer. E. dhana wealth, adhy...
Aśv-ādhyakṣa.—(EI 18), superintendent of stables or cavalry officer; cf. Aśva-sādhanika, Aśvapa...
Sūdādhyakṣa (सूदाध्यक्ष).—m. (-kṣaḥ) Superintendent of the kitchen. E. sūda a cook, adhyakṣa su...
Gajādhyakṣa (गजाध्यक्ष).—superintendent of elephants; Bri. S.86.34. Derivable forms: gajādhyakṣ...
Stry-adhyakṣa.—(IE 8-3; CII 1), superintendent of matters concerning the ladies of the royal ho...
Mudra-adhyakṣa.—same as Mudra-adhikārin, etc.; cf. Rājamudrā- dhikārin. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Sy...
Vivīta-adhyakṣa.—(EI 28), known from the Arthaśāstra; officer in charge of the pasture land. Cf...
Sarv-ādhyakṣa.—(EI 24, 27; CII 3), literally, a general superin- tendent; probably, the chief m...
Hasty-adhyakṣa.—(BL; EI 18), keeper of elephants; officer in charge of the elephant corps. Cf. ...
Kanakādhyakṣa (कनकाध्यक्ष).—m. (-kṣaḥ) The treasurer or superintendent of the gold. E. kanaka, ...
Araṇyādhyakṣa (अरण्याध्यक्ष).—m. (-kṣaḥ) Keeper or ranger of the forests, a headman or superint...
Phalādhyakṣa (फलाध्यक्ष).—m. (-kṣaḥ) A tree, commonly Khirani, (Mimusops Kauki.) E. phala fruit...
Balādhyakṣa.—(IE 8-3), officer in charge of the army; mentioned along with the Senāpati who was...

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