Vikriti, Vikṛti: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Vikriti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Vikṛti can be transliterated into English as Vikrti or Vikriti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Vikriti (विक्रिति):—One of the persons joining Śiva during the preparations of the war between Śankhacūḍa and the Devas, according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (9.20.22-53). All persons attending were remained seated on beautiful aerial cars, built of jewels and gems. The war was initiated by Puṣpadanta (messenger of Śiva) who was ordered to restore the rights of the Devas. .

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to the “change in shape and form” when heating minerals. It is used throughout Rasaśāstra literature, such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Vikṛti (विकृति).—A King of the family of Yayāti. This King’s father was Jīmūta, and his son was Bhīmaratha. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 9).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vikṛti (विकृति).—A son of Jīmūta, and father of Bhīmaratha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 4; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 70. 42; Vāyu-purāṇa 95. 41. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 12. 41.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to a class of rhythm-type (chandas) containing twenty-three syllables in a pāda (‘foot’ or ‘quarter-verse’), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. There are twenty-six classes of chandas and out of them arise the various syllabic meters (vṛtta), composed of four pādas, defining the pattern of alternating light and heavy syllables.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to the twenty-fourth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native whose birth occurs in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘vikriti’ is subjected to poverty, is certainly horrible looking, has a tall body, is given to pride and is lacking in wisdom and intelligence and does not establish friendship with anyone.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year vikriti (2010-2011 AD) will be full of guile, love-sick, and devoting his mind to magic formularies and their practical application in ceremonies.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vikṛti (विकृति).—Change, modification as different from the original which is called प्रकृतिः (prakṛtiḥ) cf. प्रकृतिरुपादानकारणं तस्यैव उत्तरमवस्थान्तरं विकृतिः (prakṛtirupādānakāraṇaṃ tasyaiva uttaramavasthāntaraṃ vikṛtiḥ) Kas. on P.V.I.12.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Vikṛti (विकृति) is one of the twenty-six varieties of Sanskrit metres (chandas) mentioned in the Chandaśśāstra 1.15-19. There are 26 Vedic metres starting with 1 to 26 letters in each pāda. It is a common belief that the classical metres are developed from these 26 metres. Generally a metre has a specific name according to it’s number of syllables (akṣara). But sometimes the same stanza is called by the name of another metre from the point of view of the pādas.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Vikṛti (विकृति) is the twenty-fourth of sixty years (saṃvatsara) in the Vedic lunar calendar according to the Arcana-dīpikā by Vāmana Mahārāja (cf. Appendix).—Accordingl, There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (Amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (Gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or March. The Vedic year [viz., Vikṛti], therefore, does not correspond exactly with the Christian solar calendar year.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to “products”, which is mentioned in verse 3.12 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Having thereupon bathed according to ritual—with the oil removed by an astringent—,rubbed (one’s body) with musk-charged saffron, (and) fumigated (oneself) with aloe-wood one shall (at last) turn to rich, broths, fat meat, rum, barm, arrack, delicious products [viz., vikṛti] made of wheat, (rice-)flour, urd-beans, sugarcane, and milk, [...]”.

Note: Vikṛti (“product”) has been rendered by bza (“food”) whereas its adjunct śubha (“delicious”) has been omitted.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Vikṛti (विकृति).—According to the 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.130) by Hemacandra, the articles of food (āhāra) are classified into ten vikṛtis:

  1. kṣīra (milk),
  2. dadhi (curds),
  3. navanīta (butter),
  4. ghṛta (ghee),
  5. taila (oil),
  6. guḍa (molasses),
  7. madya (alcohol),
  8. madhu (honey),
  9. māṃsa (meat),
  10. avagāhima.

The essential idea of a vikṛti seems to be that of a foodstuff that has changed its nature owing to a process of cooking or to bacteriological action. In the conventional interpretation of the commentators it is “that by which tongue and mind are perverted” (Sāgāra-dharmāmṛta verse 35).

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vikṛti.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘twentythree’. Note: vikṛti is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vikṛti (विकृति).—f (S) pop. vikṛta f Change from the healthy or the natural state or form; viz. any sickness or disorder; any passion or feeling; any emotion or excited affection interruptive of mental quiescence; a modification of matter, a chemical transformation, any altered mode or form of being.

--- OR ---

vikṛtī (विकृती).—f (vikṛta S) Disgust, nausea, aversion.

--- OR ---

vikṛtī (विकृती).—a (Corr. from vikrīta S) Bought, got by purchase: opp. to made or bred at home. 2 That is for sale.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vikṛtī (विकृती).—f Disgust, nausea.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति).—f.

1) Change (as of purpose, mind, form &c.); चित्तविकृतिः (cittavikṛtiḥ); अङ्गुलीयकं सुवर्णस्य विकृतिः (aṅgulīyakaṃ suvarṇasya vikṛtiḥ) &c.; प्रकृतिविकृति- भिरनुसवनम् (prakṛtivikṛti- bhiranusavanam) Bhāg.5.7.5.

2) An unnatural or accidental circumstance, an accident; मरणं प्रकृतिः शरीरिणां विकृति- र्जीवितमुच्यते बुधैः (maraṇaṃ prakṛtiḥ śarīriṇāṃ vikṛti- rjīvitamucyate budhaiḥ) R.8.87.

3) Sickness.

4) Excitement, perturbation, anger, rage; सावलेपमुपलिप्सिते परैरभ्युपैति विकृतिं रजस्यपि रजस्यपि (sāvalepamupalipsite parairabhyupaiti vikṛtiṃ rajasyapi rajasyapi) Ki.13.56; U.5.29; Śi.15.11,4.

5) Emotion; सत्त्वानामपि लक्ष्यते विकृतिमच्चित्तं भयक्रोधयोः (sattvānāmapi lakṣyate vikṛtimaccittaṃ bhayakrodhayoḥ) Ś.2.5.

6) A sudden seizure or affection.

7) Fermented liquor; see विकार (vikāra) amd विक्रिया (vikriyā) also.

8) Hostility.

9) A phantom, spectre.

1) Abortion.

11) (In gram.) A derivative.

Derivable forms: vikṛtiḥ (विकृतिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति).—f. (-tiḥ-tī) 1. Change of any kind, as of purpose, mind, form, nature, &c., either permanent or temporary. 2. Sickness, disease, change from the natural or healthy state. 3. Fear, apprehension. 4. Spirituous liquor. 5. A species of metre: the stanza consists of four lines of two syllables each, variously arranged. E. vi implying alteration or reverse, kṛ to make, aff. ktin .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति).—[vi-kṛ + ti], f. 1. Change of any kind, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 133, 16 (wrath); of mind, [Pañcatantra] 58, 25. 2. Sickness. 3. Fear. 4. Spirituous liquor.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति).—[feminine] alteration, change, disorder (poss. vikṛtimant) | formation, development; [Name] of a species of metre.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vikṛti (विकृति):—[=vi-kṛti] [from vi-kṛ] f. change, alteration, modification, variation, changed condition (of body or mind; [accusative] with √gam, , vraj, or pra-√pad, to undergo a change, be changed), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] sickness, disease, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] perturbation, agitation, emotion, [Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] alienation, hostility, defection, [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra; Pañcatantra]

5) [v.s. ...] a verse changed in a [particular] manner, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

6) [v.s. ...] an apparition, phantom, spectre, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

7) [v.s. ...] any production (ifc. anything made of), [Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

8) [v.s. ...] (in Sāṃkhya) = 2. vi-kāra

9) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) a derivative, [Nirukta, by Yāska]

10) [v.s. ...] formation, growth, development, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] abortion, [Suśruta] ([varia lectio] vaikṛta)

12) [v.s. ...] = ḍimba, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] = pralāpa, [Haravijaya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of a class of metres, [Piṅgala Scholiast, i.e. halāyudha]

15) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a son of Jīmūta, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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