Vikriti, Vikṛti: 30 definitions


Vikriti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Vikṛti can be transliterated into English as Vikrti or Vikriti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Vikrati.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Vikriti (विक्रिति):—One of the persons joining Śiva during the preparations of the war between Śankhacūḍa and the Devas, according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (9.20.22-53). All persons attending were remained seated on beautiful aerial cars, built of jewels and gems. The war was initiated by Puṣpadanta (messenger of Śiva) who was ordered to restore the rights of the Devas. .

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to the “change in shape and form” when heating minerals. It is used throughout Rasaśāstra literature, such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to “disfigurement”, as taught in the Ceṣṭita (“symptoms of snake-bites”) section of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—Sage Kāśyapa adds a graphic description of the features of a fatally bitten victim. Blackish-blue coloured blood oozing from the site of a fatal snake-bite, thirst, sweat, stiffness of limbs, horripilation, trembling of organs, ungainly appearance of lips and teeth, nasal speech, loss of consciousness and disfigurement (vikṛti) [pūrvādhikavikṛtirityucyate]—all these are surefire signs of a fatally bitten person.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to “products”, which is mentioned in verse 3.12 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Having thereupon bathed according to ritual—with the oil removed by an astringent—,rubbed (one’s body) with musk-charged saffron, (and) fumigated (oneself) with aloe-wood one shall (at last) turn to rich, broths, fat meat, rum, barm, arrack, delicious products [viz., vikṛti] made of wheat, (rice-)flour, urd-beans, sugarcane, and milk, [...]”.

Note: Vikṛti (“product”) has been rendered by bza (“food”) whereas its adjunct śubha (“delicious”) has been omitted.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Vikṛti (विकृति).—A King of the family of Yayāti. This King’s father was Jīmūta, and his son was Bhīmaratha. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 9).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vikṛti (विकृति).—A son of Jīmūta, and father of Bhīmaratha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 4; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 70. 42; Vāyu-purāṇa 95. 41. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 12. 41.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to a class of rhythm-type (chandas) containing twenty-three syllables in a pāda (‘foot’ or ‘quarter-verse’), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. There are twenty-six classes of chandas and out of them arise the various syllabic meters (vṛtta), composed of four pādas, defining the pattern of alternating light and heavy syllables.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to the twenty-fourth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native whose birth occurs in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘vikriti’ is subjected to poverty, is certainly horrible looking, has a tall body, is given to pride and is lacking in wisdom and intelligence and does not establish friendship with anyone.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year vikriti (2010-2011 AD) will be full of guile, love-sick, and devoting his mind to magic formularies and their practical application in ceremonies.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vikṛti (विकृति).—Change, modification as different from the original which is called प्रकृतिः (prakṛtiḥ) cf. प्रकृतिरुपादानकारणं तस्यैव उत्तरमवस्थान्तरं विकृतिः (prakṛtirupādānakāraṇaṃ tasyaiva uttaramavasthāntaraṃ vikṛtiḥ) Kas. on P.V.I.12.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Vikṛti (विकृति) is one of the twenty-six varieties of Sanskrit metres (chandas) mentioned in the Chandaśśāstra 1.15-19. There are 26 Vedic metres starting with 1 to 26 letters in each pāda. It is a common belief that the classical metres are developed from these 26 metres. Generally a metre has a specific name according to it’s number of syllables (akṣara). But sometimes the same stanza is called by the name of another metre from the point of view of the pādas.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Vikṛti (विकृति) is the twenty-fourth of sixty years (saṃvatsara) in the Vedic lunar calendar according to the Arcana-dīpikā by Vāmana Mahārāja (cf. Appendix).—Accordingl, There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (Amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (Gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or March. The Vedic year [viz., Vikṛti], therefore, does not correspond exactly with the Christian solar calendar year.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Vikriti in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to a “change (in the natural state) (of embodied creatures)”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 8.88-90.—Accordingly: “The wise say that death is the natural state of embodied creatures and life is a change (vikṛti) in that state. If a being remains breathing even for a moment it is surely fortunate. The foolish man regards the loss of his dear one as a dart shot into his heart. Another man looks on the same as a dart that has been pulled out, for it is a door to beatitude. When we are taught that our own body and soul unite and then separate, tell me which wise person should be tormented by separation from the external objects of the senses?”.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: University of Vienna: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to an “abnormal modification (caused by a aggressive ritual)”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “An abnormal modification (vikṛti) caused by a aggressive ritual (abhicāra) against Kings, occurring at the improper time, dreadful and all-reaching, is characterized by the these signs: Suddenly horses, elephants and ministers perish, the king himself suffers from a serious illness which has seized [his] body; terrifying thunderbolts strike his dominion; [...] from such and other signs he should understand that the enemy is performing a aggressive ritual”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Vikṛti (विकृति) represents the number 23 (twenty-three) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 23—vikṛti] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Vikriti in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Vikṛti (विकृति) refers to a “naughty (hawk)” (as a result of too much feeding), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the training of hawks]: “In calling the hawk, either its wings should be tied or it should be covered with cloth. When it comes it should be rewarded by food, so that it may not be disappointed. [...] If highly fed, they grow naughty (vikṛti); if starved, they do not grow attached or strong [atipuṣṭastu vikṛtimaśaktim atikarṣitaḥ]. Birds of this clas are like low people. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Jaina Yoga

Vikṛti (विकृति).—According to the 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.130) by Hemacandra, the articles of food (āhāra) are classified into ten vikṛtis:

  1. kṣīra (milk),
  2. dadhi (curds),
  3. navanīta (butter),
  4. ghṛta (ghee),
  5. taila (oil),
  6. guḍa (molasses),
  7. madya (alcohol),
  8. madhu (honey),
  9. māṃsa (meat),
  10. avagāhima.

The essential idea of a vikṛti seems to be that of a foodstuff that has changed its nature owing to a process of cooking or to bacteriological action. In the conventional interpretation of the commentators it is “that by which tongue and mind are perverted” (Sāgāra-dharmāmṛta verse 35).

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vikṛti.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘twentythree’. Note: vikṛti is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vikṛti (विकृति).—f (S) pop. vikṛta f Change from the healthy or the natural state or form; viz. any sickness or disorder; any passion or feeling; any emotion or excited affection interruptive of mental quiescence; a modification of matter, a chemical transformation, any altered mode or form of being.

--- OR ---

vikṛtī (विकृती).—f (vikṛta S) Disgust, nausea, aversion.

--- OR ---

vikṛtī (विकृती).—a (Corr. from vikrīta S) Bought, got by purchase: opp. to made or bred at home. 2 That is for sale.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vikṛtī (विकृती).—f Disgust, nausea.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति).—f.

1) Change (as of purpose, mind, form &c.); चित्तविकृतिः (cittavikṛtiḥ); अङ्गुलीयकं सुवर्णस्य विकृतिः (aṅgulīyakaṃ suvarṇasya vikṛtiḥ) &c.; प्रकृतिविकृति- भिरनुसवनम् (prakṛtivikṛti- bhiranusavanam) Bhāgavata 5.7.5.

2) An unnatural or accidental circumstance, an accident; मरणं प्रकृतिः शरीरिणां विकृति- र्जीवितमुच्यते बुधैः (maraṇaṃ prakṛtiḥ śarīriṇāṃ vikṛti- rjīvitamucyate budhaiḥ) R.8.87.

3) Sickness.

4) Excitement, perturbation, anger, rage; सावलेपमुपलिप्सिते परैरभ्युपैति विकृतिं रजस्यपि रजस्यपि (sāvalepamupalipsite parairabhyupaiti vikṛtiṃ rajasyapi rajasyapi) Kirātārjunīya 13.56; Uttararāmacarita 5.29; Śiśupālavadha 15.11,4.

5) Emotion; सत्त्वानामपि लक्ष्यते विकृतिमच्चित्तं भयक्रोधयोः (sattvānāmapi lakṣyate vikṛtimaccittaṃ bhayakrodhayoḥ) Ś.2.5.

6) A sudden seizure or affection.

7) Fermented liquor; see विकार (vikāra) amd विक्रिया (vikriyā) also.

8) Hostility.

9) A phantom, spectre.

1) Abortion.

11) (In gram.) A derivative.

Derivable forms: vikṛtiḥ (विकृतिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति).—f. (-tiḥ-tī) 1. Change of any kind, as of purpose, mind, form, nature, &c., either permanent or temporary. 2. Sickness, disease, change from the natural or healthy state. 3. Fear, apprehension. 4. Spirituous liquor. 5. A species of metre: the stanza consists of four lines of two syllables each, variously arranged. E. vi implying alteration or reverse, kṛ to make, aff. ktin .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति).—[vi-kṛ + ti], f. 1. Change of any kind, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 133, 16 (wrath); of mind, [Pañcatantra] 58, 25. 2. Sickness. 3. Fear. 4. Spirituous liquor.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति).—[feminine] alteration, change, disorder (poss. vikṛtimant) | formation, development; [Name] of a species of metre.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vikṛti (विकृति):—[=vi-kṛti] [from vi-kṛ] f. change, alteration, modification, variation, changed condition (of body or mind; [accusative] with √gam, , vraj, or pra-√pad, to undergo a change, be changed), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] sickness, disease, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] perturbation, agitation, emotion, [Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] alienation, hostility, defection, [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra; Pañcatantra]

5) [v.s. ...] a verse changed in a [particular] manner, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

6) [v.s. ...] an apparition, phantom, spectre, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

7) [v.s. ...] any production (ifc. anything made of), [Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

8) [v.s. ...] (in Sāṃkhya) = 2. vi-kāra

9) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) a derivative, [Nirukta, by Yāska]

10) [v.s. ...] formation, growth, development, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] abortion, [Suśruta] ([varia lectio] vaikṛta)

12) [v.s. ...] = ḍimba, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] = pralāpa, [Haravijaya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of a class of metres, [Piṅgala Scholiast, i.e. halāyudha]

15) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a son of Jīmūta, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति):—[vi-kṛti] (tiḥ-tī) 2. f. Change of any kind; sickness; fear; spirituous liquor.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vikṛti (विकृति) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Bigai, Vīi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vikriti in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vikriti in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति) [Also spelled vikrati]:—(nf) deformation; defilement, mutilation; defect; change or variation (for the worse); morbidity; deviation from the natural course, perversion; disorderliness; strain; caricature; -[vijñāna] pathology; ~[vaijñānika] pathologist; pathological.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vikṛti (ವಿಕೃತಿ):—

1) [noun] a change in one’s status, position, condition, etc.

2) [noun] a change in the form, shape, substance, etc.; transformation; metamorphosis.

3) [noun] physical or mental illness.

4) [noun] anger; wrath; displeasure.

5) [noun] anything that is distilled; a liquid obtained by distilling.

6) [noun] the quality of being ugly, offensive to look at; ugliness.

7) [noun] name of the twenty fourth year in the Hindu cycle of sixty years.

8) [noun] (pros.) a metrical verse having twenty three syllables in each line.

9) [noun] (gram.) a long prosodic unit (that is double the shorter one).

10) [noun] that which is derived from a natural or basic substance.

11) [noun] the abnormal state, condition of the mind, as misapprehension, wrong opinions, illusion, etc.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Vikṛti (विकृति):—n. deformation; defilement; mutilation; defect;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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