Vikritanana, Vikṛtānanā, Vikrita-anana, Vikṛtānana: 7 definitions

Introduction:

Vikritanana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Vikṛtānanā and Vikṛtānana can be transliterated into English as Vikrtanana or Vikritanana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Vikritanana in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vikṛtānana (विकृतानन) is the name of a leader of Gaṇas (Gaṇapa or Gaṇeśvara or Gaṇādhipa) who came to Kailāsa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.20. Accordingly, after Śiva decided to become the friend of Kubera:—“[...] The leaders of Gaṇas revered by the whole world and of high fortune arrived there. [...] Jālaṅka, the chief leader of Gaṇas, with twelve crores; the glorious Madana and Vikṛtānana with seven crores each. [...]”.

These [viz., Vikṛtānana] and other leaders of Gaṇas [viz., Gaṇapas] were all powerful (mahābala) and innumerable (asaṃkhyāta). [...] The Gaṇa chiefs and other noble souls of spotless splendour eagerly reached there desirous of seeing Śiva. Reaching the spot they saw Śiva, bowed to and eulogised him.

Vikṛtānana participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“O Nārada, listen to the numerical strength of the most important and courageous of those groups. [...] Viśākha with sixty-four crores, Pāriyātraka with nine crores; Sarvāṅkaka and the heroic Vikṛtānana each with six crores. [...] Thus at the bidding of Śiva, the heroic Vīrabhadra went ahead followed by crores and crores, thousands and thousands, hundreds and hundreds of Gaṇas [viz., Vikṛtānana]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vikṛtānanā (विकृतानना).—A śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 56.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vikritanana in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Vikṛtānana (विकृतानन) is the name of the guardian of the cremation ground (śmaśāna) Uḍḍāmara which is associated with Pūrṇagiri, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Note: The guardian [i.e., Vikṛtānana] of the seat is linked to the cremation ground in each seat. More often in the Kubjikā sources he is not. The Kubjikā cult, which is relatively more domesticated with respect to its forerunners, does not stress the importance of the cremation ground as a place to practice and encounter supernatural beings, as do its most closely related predecessors and fellow cults. This is especially the case in the early phase of its development.

2) Vikṛtānana (विकृतानन) refers to “one who has a deformed face” and is used to visualize Bhairava, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—Accordingly, “He has eight faces and, very powerful, shines like a white lotus. He is mightily proud and has sharp teeth and great body. He is terrible and fierce and his face is deformed [i.e., vikṛtānana]. O Śambhu, he has twenty arms and the goddess sits on his lap. He holds a sword, mallet and noose, a double-headed drum, a dagger, the Kaustubha jewel, a rosary, a skull bowl full of fruit and the like and a piece of human flesh. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vikritanana in Shaivism glossary
Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Vikṛtānana (विकृतानन) refers to an “unnatural mouth”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 9.19cd-26, while instructing to visualize Sadāśiva in order to worship the formless Amṛteśa]—“[He] resembles the swelling moon, a heap of mountain snow. [...] [Sadāśiva has] a shield, a mirror, a bow, a citron tree, and a water jar. At his head is a half moon. [He who meditates of Sadāśiva] should perceive the Eastern face as yellow; the Southern a wrathful, terrible black [that has] an unnatural, tusked mouth (vikṛtānanadaṃṣṭralaṃ vikṛtānanam). [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vikritanana in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Vikṛtānana (विकृतानन) refers to “having a deformed visage”, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Accordingly, [while describing a haṭha-sādhana (foreceful practice)]: “[...] Hear what would transpire for him on the ninth day: A loud, terrifying sound arises in the hole, a sweet-smelling air is diffused [and] everywhere a shower of flowers. All the gods shake with fear, their eyes quivering. Aghorī\'s spirits appear in the clear of dawn by the thousands, of great majesty and deformed visage (vikṛtānana). [...]”

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Vikṛitānana (विकृइतानन) refers to “(having) a fierce face” which is used to describe Cakrasaṃvara, according to the Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—Accordingly, [while describing the iconography of Cakrasaṃvara]: “In the Saṃvara Maṇḍala atop Mount Sumera within a vajra-canopy there is a variegated lotus, on top of that a palace, in the middle of which is the Blessed Lord, standing in ālīḍhāsana, "archer's pose", [...] possessing a naraśiromālā-śatārdha, "garland of fifty (fresh) human heads" around the neck, the ṣaṇmudrā, "six insignia", bone ornaments, which are the kaṇṭhikā, "necklace", rucaka, "bracelets", kuṇḍala, "ear-rings", mekhalā, "girdle", śiromaṇi, "crest jewel", and bhasmitiḥ, "covered in ashes", a jaṭāmakuṭa, "crest of dreadlocks", kapālamālā, "crown of (five) skulls", topped by an ardhacandra, "crescent moon", and viśvavajra, "world vajra" or "double vajra", a vikṛitānana, "fierce face", and daṃṣṭrotkaṭa, "horrible gigantic fangs".

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vikritanana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṛtānana (विकृतानन):—[=vi-kṛtānana] [from vi-kṛta > vi-kṛ] mfn. = ta-vadana above, [Mahābhārata]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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