Vikriya, Vikriyā: 10 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Vikriya means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Vikriyā (विक्रिया, “change of form”) or Vikriyāriddhi refers to “the power to transform the body into different shapes” and represents one of the eight types of ṛddhi (extraordinary powers), that can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people): one of the two classes of human beings, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46.—Some ascetics attain extraordinary powers to produce worldly miracles. Such attainments are called ṛddhi. There are eight types of such extraordinary powers (e.g., Vikriyā).

Vikriyā-ṛddhi (extraordinary power to change of form) is of eleven types namely:

  1. transforming the body into smaller stature (aṇimā),
  2. transforming the body into bigger stature (mahimā),
  3. transforming the body into very light body (ladhimā),
  4. transforming the body into a heavier body (garimā),
  5. stretching the body (prāpti),
  6. irresistible will (prākāmya),
  7. heavenly wealth (īśvaratva),
  8. domination (vaśitva),
  9. move by penetrating (apratighāta),
  10. disguising as invisible (antardhyāna),
  11. transform the body as of other living beings (kāmarupitva).
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Vikriya refers to one of the 84 castes (gaccha) in the Jain community according to Prof. H. H. Wilson. The Jain caste and sub-caste system was a comparatively later development within their community, and it may have arisen from the ancient classification of Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra. Before distinction of these classes (such as Vikriya), the society was not divided into distinct separate sections, but all were considered as different ways of life and utmost importance was attached to individual chartacter and mode of behaviour.

According to Dr. Vilas Adinath Sangava, “Jainism does not recognise castes (viz., Vikriya) as such and at the same time the Jaina books do not specifically obstruct the observance of caste rules by the members of the Jaina community. The attitude of Jainism towards caste is that it is one of the social practices, unconnected with religion, observed by people; and it was none of its business to regulate the working of the caste system” (source).

The legendary account of the origin of these 84 Jain castes (e.g., Vikriya) relate that once a rich Jain invited members of the Jain community in order to establish a vaiśya-mahāsabhā (i.e. Central Association of Traders). In response, 84 representatives came from different places, and they were later seen as the progenitors of these castes. Various sources however mention differences in the list.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vikriyā (विक्रिया).—1 Change, modification, alteration; श्मश्रुप्रवृद्धिजनिताननविक्रियान् (śmaśrupravṛddhijanitānanavikriyān) R.13.71;1.17.

2) Agitation, excitement, perturbation, excitement of passion; अथ तेन निगृह्य विक्रियामभिशप्तः फलमेतदन्वभूत् (atha tena nigṛhya vikriyāmabhiśaptaḥ phalametadanvabhūt) Ku.4.41;3.34.

3) Anger, wrath, displeasure; साधोः प्रकोपितस्यापि मनो नायाति विक्रियाम् (sādhoḥ prakopitasyāpi mano nāyāti vikriyām) Subhāṣ; लिङ्गैर्मुदः संवृतविक्रियास्ते (liṅgairmudaḥ saṃvṛtavikriyāste) R.7.3; किमकारणमस्मासु गतवानसि विक्रियाम् (kimakāraṇamasmāsu gatavānasi vikriyām) Bm.1.911.

4) Reverse, evil; विक्रियायै न कल्पन्ते संबन्धाः सदनुष्ठिताः (vikriyāyai na kalpante saṃbandhāḥ sadanuṣṭhitāḥ) Ku.6.29 (vikriyāyai = vaikalyotpādanāya Malli.)

5) Knitting, contraction (of the eyebrows); भ्रूविक्रियायां विरतप्रसंगैः (bhrūvikriyāyāṃ virataprasaṃgaiḥ) Ku.3.47.

6) Any sudden movement, as in रोमविक्रिया (romavikriyā) V.1.12 'thrill'.

7) A sudden affection or seizure, disease.

8) Violation, vitiation (of the proper duties); इत्याप्त- वचनाद्रामो विनेष्यन् वर्णविक्रियाम् (ityāpta- vacanādrāmo vineṣyan varṇavikriyām) R.15.48.

9) A preparation or dish of rice &c.

1) Injury, harm.

11) Extinction (of a lamp).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vikrīya (विक्रीय).—(?) , (a dead monk's belongings, bhikṣubhiḥ…) vikrīya bhājitam Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.119.15, and similarly 121.2, 125.6. Should, in Sanskrit, mean having sold, but Tibetan bsgyur nas, or sgyur te, having altered, transformed, as if false Sanskritization of some Prakrit ger. of vi-karoti (vikariya? compare pass. Pali vikiriyyati).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikriyā (विक्रिया).—f.

(-yā) 1. Change of mind, form, purpose, condition, &c. 2. Emotion, perturbation, passion. 3. Anger, dis-satisfaction. 4. Contraction. 5. Vitiation, intermixture. E. vi implying reverse, and kriyā action: see vikāra .

--- OR ---

Vikrīya (विक्रीय).—Ind. Having sold. E. vi before, kṛ to buy, lyap aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikriyā (विक्रिया).—i. e. vi-kṛ + ya, and vi-kriyā, f. 1. Change, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 330; transformation, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] p. 106, 1. 2. A dish prepared from (milk), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 25. 3. Disease, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 187, 7. 4. Mischief, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 49, 56.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikriyā (विक्रिया).—[feminine] = vikāra + misfortune, mischief, damage.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vikriyā (विक्रिया):—[=vi-kriyā] [from vi-kṛ] a f. transformation, change, modification, altered or unnatural condition, [Kāvya literature; Purāṇa; Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] change for the worse, deterioration, disfigurement, deformity, [Rāmāyaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] ailment, indisposition, affection, [Rāmāyaṇa; Daśakumāra-carita; Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] perturbation, agitation, perplexity, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] hostile feeling, rebellion, defection, alienation, [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

6) [v.s. ...] injury, harm, failure, misadventure ([accusative] with √, to suffer injury, undergo failure), [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] extinction (of a lamp), [Kathāsaritsāgara]

8) [v.s. ...] a strange or unwonted phenomenon, [ib.]

9) [v.s. ...] any product or preparation, [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] contraction, knitting (of the brows; See bhrū-v)

11) [v.s. ...] bristling (of the hair; See roma-v)

12) [=vi-kriyā] b etc. See p. 954, col. 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikriyā (विक्रिया):—[vi-kriyā] (yā) 1. f. A change of mind, form, &c.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Vikriyā (विक्रिया):—(von 1. kar mit vi) f.

1) Umgestaltung, Umwandlung, Veränderung, Modification, veränderter —, abnormer Zustand [Amarakoṣa 3, 3, 15.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1518.] [Śākuntala 106, 1.] mukhavarṇasya [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 35, 34.] bhrū = bhrūvikāra [Kumārasaṃbhava 3, 47.] guṇā na yānti vikriyām [Spr. 3314.] asatāṃ saṅgadoṣeṇa sādhavo yānti vikriyām [747 (II). 3266.] [Suśruta 1, 128, 3.] Verunstaltung: prāpteyaṃ vikriyā mayā [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 1, 50, 2.] śmaśrupravṛddhijanitānanavikriya [Raghuvaṃśa 13, 71.] brahma [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 9, 1, 17.] sa mantra iti vijñeyaḥ śeṣāstu khalu vikriyāḥ so v. a. ein schlechter Rath, kein wahrer Rath [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 86, 18.] sāmasiddhāni kāryāṇi vikriyāṃ yānti na kvacit zu Schanden werden [Spr. 942 (II).] vikriyāyai na kalpante saṃbandhāḥ sadanuṣṭhitāḥ [Kumārasaṃbhava 6, 29.] dīpasya so v. a. das Verlöschen [Spr. 4974.] avikriya (f. ā) keine Veränderung erleidend, keinem Wandel unterworfen [Raghuvaṃśa 10, 17.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 18, 26. 7, 7, 19.] keine Veränderung im Aeussern zeigend, keine Miene verziehend, seine Gemüthsstimmung nicht verrathend [Kathāsaritsāgara 31, 88.] keine Verschiedenheit zeigend, ganz gleich [Rājataraṅgiṇī 5, 363.] vikriyā ungewöhnliche Erscheinung [Kathāsaritsāgara 5, 25.] Missgeschick [4, 605. 14, 73.] Schaden: rākṣasā duṣṭabhāvā hi yatante vikriyāṃ vane beabsichtigen Schaden zuzufügen [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 49, 56.] —

2) Erzeugniss: payasaścaiva vikriyāḥ alles was aus Milch bereitet wird [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 5, 25.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 1, 169.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 35, 2.] —

3) Veränderung im normalen Zustande des menschlichen Körpers, Indisposition, Affection: māruta [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 31, 40.] kampādi [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 174.] bhāvitaviṣavegavikriya [Daśakumāracarita 72, 16.] saṃdhi [Suśruta 1, 300, 14.] —

4) Veränderung im normalen Zustande des Gemüths, Alteration, Aufregung: vikāraṃ yāti no cittaṃ vitte yasya kadā ca na [Spr. 4987.] ātma [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 1, 65, 14.] citta [2, 16, 45.] na cāsīdvikriyā yasya prāpya śriyamuttamam [Mahābhārata 7, 2428.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 34, 53.] [Rāmāyaṇa] [Gorresio 2, 17, 31.] [Raghuvaṃśa 7, 27.] [Kumārasaṃbhava 3, 34. 4, 41.] [Spr. 3018.] nirvikārātmake citte bhāvaḥ prathamavikriyā [Sāhityadarpana 126.] [Prabodhacandrodaja 15, 6.] bhajanvā darpavikriyām [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 378.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 23, 8] [?(pl.). 5, 10, 26.] smaravikriyam [Sāhityadarpana 59, 17.] —

5) Wechsel der Gesinnung, feindselige Gesinnung, Auflehnung, Abfall: sādhoḥ paruṣitaspāpi mano nāyāti vikriyām [Spr. 3234.] bhavadbhirvardhitāścaiva yāsyāmo vikriyāṃ katham [Harivaṃśa 5756.] [Spr. 1447 (II). 3128. 3136.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 50, 122.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 3, 153. 6, 238. 8, 585.] varṇa eine gegen die Kasten an den Tag gelegte feindselige Gesinnung [Raghuvaṃśa 15, 48.] — Vgl. bhūta, roma (auch [Vikramorvaśī 12]), vikāra und vikṛti .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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