Vikshepa, Vikṣepa: 13 definitions


Vikshepa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Vikṣepa can be transliterated into English as Viksepa or Vikshepa, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Vikṣepa (विक्षेप) refers to one of the twenty aspects of tāla (time-measure), according to the Nāṭyaśāstrahapter chapter 28. In musical performance, tāla refers to any rhythmic beat or strike that measures musical time. It is an important concept in ancient Indian musical theory (gāndharvaśāstra) traceable to the Vedic era.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31, vikṣepa is one of the four varieties of the silent tāla. Accordingly, “swiftly moving that (i.e. the palm turned downwards) to the right side is the vikṣepa”, and “after showing the āvāpa (lit. the curving the fingers) one should be making the niṣkrāma and then the vikṣepa and next the praveśana (praveśa)”. The tāla is so called because it measures time by a division of songs into kalās”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Vikṣepa (विक्षेप).—Celestial latitude. Note: Vikṣepa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Vikṣepa (विक्षेप, “distraction”) is of two kinds according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “There are two kinds of distraction, subtle (sūkṣma) and coarse (sthūla). Subtle distraction (sūkṣma-vikṣepa) is of three types according to whether it abounds in attachment (āsaṅgabahula), pride (abhimānabahula) or wrong view (dṛṣṭibahula). These three distractions are subtle distractions. Because of that, one falls out of the concentrations and produces the threefold poison (rāga, dveṣa and moha) that constitutes the coarse distraction (sthūla-vikṣepa)”.

Vikṣepa (विक्षेप) refers to “distraction”, according to chapter L.—Accordingly, “[...] the Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva who wishes to not produce thoughts of avarice, immorality, malice, laziness, distraction (vikṣepa) or false wisdom should practice the perfection of wisdom”.—The distracted mind (vikṣepa-citta) is like a lamp (dīpa) in the wind which has light but does not illuminate objects. It is the same for the wisdom (prajñā) in a distracted mind. Wisdom is the root (mūla) of all good dharmas (kuśaladharma). In order to realize this wisdom, it is first necessary to concentrate the mind: it is only afterwards that one will realize it. A drunk man (unmatta) makes no distinction between his own interest (svārtha) and the interest of others (parārtha), between beautiful things (suvarṇa) and ugly things (durvarṇa). It is the same for the man with a distracted mind: unable to recognize well beautiful worldly (laukika) things, how would he discern the supramundane (lokottara) dharmas?

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Vikṣepa (विक्षेप, “scatteredness”) refers to one of the “twenty-four minor defilements” (upakleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 69). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., vikṣepa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vikṣepa.—(IA 7, 13), cf. vijaya-vikṣepa used as an epithet of the place whence a royal charter was issued; cf. vijaya-vikṣepāt Bha- rukaccha-vāsakāt; wrongly interpreted as ‘a camp or cantonment’ (IA 17). See also Vaikṣepika. Note: vikṣepa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vikṣēpa (विक्षेप).—m S Throwing up, out, forth, around, about. 2 Dissipation (of the mind or attention); scattered state (of the wits or thoughts). Ex. javaḷa gaḍabaḍa asalī mhaṇajē citta ēkāgra hōta nāhīṃ vi0 hōtō; also gṛhakalaha vāīṭa jāṇā || vi0 vāḍhē kṣaṇakṣaṇā ||. 3 Bewilderment, amazement, great astonishment. Ex. aisī aikūṇa vipravārttā || vi0 cittāṃ vāṭalā ||; also hēṃ kīrttanāmājī yētāci vighna || vi0 pāvalēṃ sakaḷāñcēṃ mana ||. 4 Crazedness; confusion of intellect; esp. that arising from demoniac possession, or that induced by incantations and charms. 5 In Hindu philosophy. One of the two (viz. vikṣēpa & āvaraṇa) sources of error or erroneous apprehension. See at large under ā- varaṇa. 6 Celestial latitude.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vikṣēpa (विक्षेप).—m Throwing up. Bewilderment. Crazedness.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vikṣepa (विक्षेप).—1 Throwing away or asunder, scattering about.

2) Casting, throwing, discharging (opp. saṃhāra); संहारविक्षेपसहस्रकोटीस्तिष्ठन्ति जीवाः (saṃhāravikṣepasahasrakoṭīstiṣṭhanti jīvāḥ) Mb.12.28.3; संहारविक्षेप- लघुक्रियेण (saṃhāravikṣepa- laghukriyeṇa) R.5.45.

3) Waving, moving about, shaking, moving to and fro; बाहुविक्षेपकरणां समुद्यम्य महागदाम् (bāhuvikṣepakaraṇāṃ samudyamya mahāgadām) Rām. 7.32.41. लाङ्गूल° (lāṅgūla°) Ku.1.13.

4) Sending, despatching.

5) Distraction, confusion, perplexity; Māl.1.

6) Alarm, fear.

7) Refutation of an argument.

8) Polar latitude.

9) Looking about vaguely or wildly.

1) Neglecting (time).

11) Extension, projection.

12) A kind of weapon.

Derivable forms: vikṣepaḥ (विक्षेपः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vikṣepa (विक्षेप).—m., (1) a putting off, excuse (for not acceding to a request); in American slang, a brush-off: Avadāna-śataka i.94.4 prasenajitā tasya vikṣepaḥ kṛtaḥ (Speyer refusal; but he did not precisely refuse, as the sequel shows, only put the other off, temporarily); (2) in vikṣepādhipati, m., Mahāvyutpatti [Page482-b+ 71] 3688, Tibetan khyab bdag, or dmag dpon, both commander, general; [Boehtlingk] 7.374 suggests vikṣepa = camp, cantonment; (3) vikṣepa-lipi, a kind of script: Lalitavistara 126.5, see s.v. utkṣepa-lipi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṣepa (विक्षेप).—m.

(-paḥ) 1. Casting, or throwing away. 2. Sending, dispatching. 3. Confusion, perplexity, fear proceeding from ignorance or error. 4. Looking about vaguely or wildly, as of a woman for her absent lover. 5. Refuting an argument, establishing its falsehood. 6. Celestial latitude. E. vi before, kṣip to throw, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṣepa (विक्षेप).—i. e. vi-kṣip + a, m. 1. Casting, or throwing away (caraṇa-, Casting asunder of the feet, i. e. striding, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 60, 14). 2. Dispatching. 3. Refuting an argument. 4. Confusion, perplexity, fear, proceeding from ignorance or error, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 205, 23; cf. 206, 8; 217, 24. 5. Looking about wildly. 6. Celestial latitude.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vikṣepa (विक्षेप).—[masculine] throwing, scattering, tossing, sending, dispatching; turning off, diversion, distraction; projection (ph.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vikṣepa (विक्षेप):—[=vi-kṣepa] [from vi-kṣip] m. the act of throwing asunder or away or about, scattering, dispersion, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa; Dhātupāṭha]

2) [v.s. ...] casting, throwing, discharging, [Raghuvaṃśa; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] moving about or to and fro, waving, shaking, tossing, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] drawing (a bow-string), [Harivaṃśa]

5) [v.s. ...] letting loose, indulging (opp. to saṃyama), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] letting slip, neglecting (time), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] inattention, distraction, confusion, perplexity, [Maitrī-upaniṣad; Yoga-sūtra; Mālatīmādhava]

8) [v.s. ...] extension, projection, [Vedāntasāra] (See -śakti)

9) [v.s. ...] abusing, reviling, [Bharata-nāṭya-śāstra]

10) [v.s. ...] compassion, pity, [Daśarūpa]

11) [v.s. ...] celestial or polar latitude, [Sūryasiddhānta]

12) [v.s. ...] a kind of weapon, [Mahābhārata] ([Nīlakaṇṭha])

13) [v.s. ...] a camp, cantonment (?), [Buddhist literature]

14) [v.s. ...] a kind of disease, [Catalogue(s)]

15) [v.s. ...] sending, dispatching, [Horace H. Wilson]

16) [v.s. ...] refuting an argument, [ib.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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