by Hermann Oldenberg | 1892 | 12,023 words
These Sutras give some general information about the performance of sacrifices, and may prove useful to the students both of the Shrauta and the Grihya sacrifices. Paribhasha is defined as a general rule or definition applicable throughout a whole system, and more binding than any particular rule. Alternative titles: Āpastamba-yajña-paribhāṣā-sūtr...
For these two last portions he makes the indication of the deity.
With the earlier portions, there is a rule which of two gods should have the first or the second portion. With the last couple, however, the priest may himself assign whichever portion he likes to one or the other god. The commentary says, svayam eva idam asyā iti saṅkalpayet.
When there is a number of Carus and Puroḍāśas, one separates what belongs to the Carus and what belongs to the Puroḍāśas, before the strewing.
Prāg adhivapanāt, before the strewing, is explained by prāg adhivapanārthakṛṣṇājinādānāt, before one takes the black skin which is used for the strewing.
One then marks the two (the materials for the Karus and the Puroḍāśas) according to the deities (for whom they are intended).
Let the word idam be the rule.
This means that the offering (havis) intended for each deity should be pointed out by the words idam, this, Agneḥ, is for Agni, &c. Thus we read with regard to the offerings intended for certain gods and goddesses: idaṃ Dhātur, idam Anumatyā, Rākāyāḥ Sinīvālyāḥ, Kuhvāḥ.
The commentary explains vyatishikta by anyonyaṃ vyavahita, though it is difficult to see how it can have that meaning. It is said that in the Vaiśvadeva the Carus and Puroḍāśas are vyatishikta, but that they also have to be divided before the adhivapana, and to be marked for each deity. Thus we read: Idam Agneḥ, Savituḥ, Pūṣṇo, Marutāṃ, Dyāvāpṛthivyoḥ, &c.
At the time when the Kapālas are put on the fire, one puts on the karu with the first kapāla verse.
Karu is here used for the vessel for boiling the caru, the carusthālī. The first of these verses is dhṛṣṭir asi. Kapālas are the jars in which the rice is cooked.
The verse is adapted and changed to dhruvo'si.
Saṃnāma means the same as ūha, i.e. the modification of a verse so as to adapt it to the object for which it is used. In our case, caru, being a masculine, dhṛṣṭi, a feminine, is replaced by dhruva, a masculine.
At the time when the meal is to be cleansed, one cleanses the grains.
This takes place after the caru-pot has been put on. The taṇḍulas are the unhusked grains, piṣṭa is the ground flour. In Sanskrit a distinction is made between śasya, the corn in the field, dhānya, corn with the husk, taṇḍula, grains without husks, anna, roasted grains.
At the time of cooking (adhiśrapaṇa) one throws the grains in with the cooking verse.
Commentary. This verse is gharmo'si.
Without taking the caru (out of the sthālī) one puts it down.
At the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa sacrifices there are fifteen Sāmidhenīs.
Sāmidhenīs are particular verses recited while the fire is being kindled. The first and last verses are repeated thrice, so as to make fifteen in all.
At the Iṣṭi and Paśubandha sacrifices there are seventeen Sāmidhenīs, when they are so handed down.
When it is said that wishful iṣṭis are performed in a murmur, this means that the names of the chief deities are pronounced in a murmur (likewise the yājyā and anuvākyā).
The Darśa-pūrṇamāsa sacrifice is the Prakṛti or norm for all iṣṭis.
The Sūtras, in describing the performance of certain sacrifices, treat some of them in full detail. These are called prakṛti. Prakṛyante'smin dharmā iti prakaraṇam prakṛtiḥ. They form the type of other sacrifices, which are therefore looked upon as mere modifications, vikṛti, and in describing them those points only are fully described in which they differ from their prakṛti. A sacrifice which is a vikṛti, may again become the prakṛti of another sacrifice. This system is no doubt compendious, but it is not free from difficulty, and, in some cases, from uncertainty. It shows how much system there is in the Indian sacrifices, and how fully and minutely that system must have been elaborated, before it assumed that form in which we find it in the Brāhmaṇas and Sūtras. It must not be supposed that the sacrifices which serve as prakṛti, are therefore historically the most ancient.
It is also the norm for the Agnīṣomīya Paśu, the animal sacrifice for Agnī-Shomau.
And this is the norm for the Savanīya.
And the Savanīya is the norm for the Aikādaśinas.
And the Aikādaśinas are the norm for the Paśugaṇas.
The rules for the Paśugaṇas are therefore to be taken over from the Aikādaśinas, the Savanīya, the Agnīṣomīya-paśu, and the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa, so far as they have been modified in each particular case, and are finally determined by the rules of each Paśugaṇa, as, for instance, the Āditya-paśu.
The Vaiśvadeva is the norm for the Varuṇa-praghāsa, Sākamedha, and Sīra.
The Vaiśvadeva, beginning, like the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa, with an Āgneya aṣṭakapāla, takes certain rules from the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa, and transfers these, together with its own, as, for instance, the nine prayājas, to the Varuṇa-praghāsa, &c.
The Vaiśvadevika Ekakapāla is the norm for all Ekakapālas.
The Ekakapāla is a puroḍāśa cake, baked in one kapāla. It is fully described in the Vaiśvadeva, and then becomes the norm of all Ekakapālas. An ekakapāla cake is not divided.
The Vaiśvadevī Āmikṣā is the norm for the Āmikṣās (a preparation of milk).
Here the Vikāra, the modification, is perceived from similarity.
If it has once been laid down that the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa is the prakṛti or norm for all iṣṭis, then similarity determines the modification in all details, such as the offerings and the gods to whom offerings are made. Thus Karu, being a vegetable offering, would rank as a vikāra of puroḍāśa, which occurs in the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa sacrifice, and is likewise vegetable. Honey and water would be looked upon as most like the Ājya in the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa. Āmikṣā, a preparation of milk, would come nearest to the Sāṃnāyya, which is a mixture of sour and sweet milk.
Offerings for one deity are vikāras of the Āgneya.
In the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa, which is the prakṛti of the iṣṭis, the puroḍāśa for Agni is meant for one deity. Hence all offerings to one deity in the vikṛtis follow the general rules of the Āgneya puroḍāśa, as described in the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa, for instance, the karu for Sūrya, the Dvādaśa-kapāla for Sāvitrī.
Offerings for two deities are vikāras of the Agnīṣomīya.
They must, however, be vegetable offerings, because the puroḍāśa for Agnī-Shomau is a vegetable offering. As an instance, the Āgnāvaiṣṇava Ekādaśakapāla is quoted. Agnīṣomīya has a short a, but the first a in āgnavaiṣṇava is long.
Offerings for many deities are vikāras also of the Aindrāgna.