Ramanuja, aka: Rama-anuja, Rāmānuja; 9 Definition(s)
Ramanuja means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
General definition (in Hinduism)
1) Śrī Ramanuja (1017-1137 C.E) born in a Brahmin family in the village of Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. He is seen by Śrīvaiṣṇavas as the most important teacher (ācārya) of their tradition who followed Nathamuni and Yamunacharya, and by Hindus in general as the leading expounder of Viśiṣṭādvaita, one of the classical interpretations of the dominant Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.
etymology: Śrī Ramanuja (Tamil:திரு ராமானுஜர்); also known as Śrī Ramanujacharya, Udayavar, Ethirajar (Yatiraja), Emberumannar, Lakshmana Muni)
2) Ramanuja (traditionally, 1017–1137 CE) was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete, born in a Tamil Brahmin family in the village of Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu. He is also known as Sri Ramanujacharya, Udayavar, Ethirajar (Yatiraja), Emberumannar and Lakshmana Muni. He is seen by Sri Vaishnavism as the most important acharya (teacher) of their tradition who followed Nathamuni and Yamunacharya, and by Hindus in general as the leading expounder of Vishishtadvaita, one of the classical interpretations of the dominant Vedanta school of Vedic philosophy.
Swami Ramanuja incorporated teachings from 5 different people who he considered to be his acharyas
- Peria Nambigal (Mahapurna) who performed his samasrayana,Dvayam,
- Thirukkotiyur Nambigal (Ghoshtipurna) : who revealed the meaning of the Charama Shlokam and Ashtakshari to swami on his 18th trip
- Periya Thirumalai Nambigal (Shailapurna) : Ramayana
- Tirumālai Aandaan (Maladhara): Bhagavad Vishayam (Śrī Thiruvaymozhi)
- Azhwar Thiruvaranga Perumal Arayar (Vararanga) : Remaining 3000 verses of Arulichcheyal(works of Azhwars) and Sandhai
Brahmin (member of the Hindu priestly caste) from southern India, whose teachings inspired the bhakti devotional school. He identified Brahman (the supreme soul) with the god Vishnu, whose worship he then encouraged on pilgrimages throughout India. His preaching that the visible world is real and not illusory and that God should be worshipped devotedly, built a bridge between philosophy and popular bhakti religion.(Source): Oxford Reference: A Dictionary of Hinduism
Rāmānuja (c. 1077-1157 CE) continued in the Vedānta tradition of Śaṅkara, which took its inspiration from the Upaniṣads. Both agree that reality is ultimately a single divine entity. But where Śaṅkara took the appearances around us as illusionary appearances of the real oneness, Rāmānuja argued they were real - parts of the ultimate oneness. He tied this oneness to a personal God, Lord Viṣṇu.(Source): World Philosophy: Hinduism
The Tamil Brahmin, Rāmānuja (traditional dates b. 1011–d. 1137 CE), is a major figure both in the development of Hindu theism and of the Vedānta tradition of religious philosophy. Vedānta is concerned with ultimate reality known as Brahman and with the relationship between Brahman and the world, especially the nonmaterial conscious finite self (ātman) within each human being. Rāmānuja is revered as its principal teacher (ācārya) by the south Indian Śrī Vaiṣṇava tradition, centered on the worship of the male deity Viṣṇu in the form of Nārāyaṇa together with his consort, Śrī. Śrī Vaiṣṇavism developed as a form of devotional theism (bhakti) based on the Tamil hymns of the poet saints, the Āḻvārs (6th–9th centuries CE), while also drawing on the Pāñcarātra tradition of theistic doctrine and ritual. Writing in Sanskrit, Rāmānuja’s greatest achievement was to develop a realist and theist interpretation of the Vedānta.
Building on the work of earlier teachers within the tradition, especially Yāmuna (c. 966–1038 CE), Rāmānuja teaches that the world of finite nonmaterial selves and of material entities is the body (śarīra) of Brahman. Brahman is understood to be the personal God of theism, who is characterized by an infinite number of perfect qualities, while free from any of the imperfections that are features of the world. In his major Vedāntic works, Rāmānuja argues that the path to this is open to the higher (twice-born) castes through bhakti, characterized by devout meditation (upāsanā) on the Upaniṣadic texts (Upaniṣads), yogic discipline, and conformity to caste duties, aided by the grace of God. However, the Śrī Vaiṣṇava tradition also maintains that in his more devotional works he teaches an alternative and easier path open to all people of self-surrender (prapatti) to God and reliance on the divine grace.
Rāmānuja’s interpretation of the Vedānta represented the first systematic theist alternative to earlier forms of Vedānta, especially the dominant Advaita (“nondualist”) tradition, in which both the ultimate reality of the world and of the personal theistic nature of Brahman are denied. Rāmānuja’s system came to be known as Viśiṣṭādvaita (“nondualism of the differentiated” or less helpfully “qualified nondualism”). This system was then preserved and further developed as a systematic intellectual tradition within Śrī Vaiṣṇavism. Moreover, Rāmānuja’s account became the model for later Vaiṣṇava traditions to follow or modify. Rāmānuja’s work has also proved an important resource for Indian Christians and for a variety of cross-cultural studies.(Source): Oxford Bibliographies: Hinduism
Rāmānuja, was a disciple of Śrī Yāmunācarya. Śrī Yāmunācarya, composer of texts such as the Gītārtha Saṃgraha, Siddhi Traya and Stotra Ratna, was the grandson of the 9th century sage Śrī Nāthamuni and a forebear of T Krishnamacharya. Krishnamacharya’s personal devotional philosophy and practices were grounded in the teachings that arose from these great sages and evolved into what became known as Viśiṣṭādvaita or qualified non-dualism (One of the three primary schools of Vedānta).(Source): Yoga Studies: Hinduism
Ramanuja—According to the Bhargava Upapurana (bhārgavopapurāṇa), Ramanuja is said to have been an incarnation of the serpent Shesha (śeṣa), whilst his chief companions and disciples were the embodied Discus, Mace, Lotus, and other insignia of Vishnu (viṣṇu).
Kanara account of his life, called the Divya Charitra, he is said to have been the son of Sri Keshub Acharya and Bhumi Devi; and, as before, an incarnation of Shesha (śeṣa). He was born at Perumbur, and studied at Kanchi, or Conjeveram, where also he taught his system of the Vaishnava faith. He afterwards resided at Sri Ranga, worshipping Vishnu as Sri Ranga Nath, and there composed his principal works, he then visited various parts of India, disputing with the professors of different creeds, overcoming them of course and reclaiming various shrines, then in possession of the Saivas for the worshippers of Vishnu, particularly the celebrated temple of Tripeti.(Source): Forgotten Books: Hindu Religions
Languages of India and abroad
rāmānuja (रामानुज).—m (S The younger brother of Rama.) A sect or distinction among the worshipers of Vishn̤u.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
rāmānuja (रामानुज).—m A sect or distinction among the worshippers of viṣṇu.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Rāmānuja (रामानुज).—Name of a celebrated reformer, founder of a Vedāntic sect and author of several works. He was a Vaiṣṇava.
Derivable forms: rāmānujaḥ (रामानुजः).
Rāmānuja is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms rāma and anuja (अनुज).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 25 books and stories containing Ramanuja, Rama-anuja or Rāmānuja. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 3 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 2 - Rāmānuja < [Chapter XVIII - An Historical and Literary Survey of the Viśiṣṭādvaita School of Thought]
Part 3 - The Precursors of the Viśiṣṭādvaita Philosophy < [Chapter XVIII - An Historical and Literary Survey of the Viśiṣṭādvaita School of Thought]
Part 5 - Bhāskara and Rāmānuja < [Chapter XX - Philosophy of the Rāmānuja School of Thought]
Vedānta-sūtras Part I (by George Thibaut)
First Adhyāya < [Introduction]
Second Adhyāya < [Introduction]
Fourth Adhyāya < [Introduction]
Parama Samhita (English translation) (by Krishnaswami Aiyangar)
Pāñcarātra is Vaidika in character < [Introduction]
The tradition of Agastya’s emigration confirmatory < [Introduction]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 4 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 5 - Rāmānuja and Madhva < [Chapter XXV - Madhva and his School]
Part 1 - Vallabha’s Interpretation of the Brahma-sūtra < [Chapter XXXI - The Philosophy of Vallabha]
Part 1 - The Bhāgavata-purāṇa (introduction) < [Chapter XXIV - The Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
Preceptors of Advaita (by T. M. P. Mahadevan)
(i) Ātreya Brahmanandi and Draidāchārya < [50. Some Pre-Śaṅkara Advaitins]
Parables of Rama (by Swami Rama Tirtha)