Sharkara, Śārkara, Śarkarā, Śarkara: 18 definitions

Introduction

Sharkara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śārkara and Śarkarā and Śarkara can be transliterated into English as Sarkara or Sharkara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śarkarā (शर्करा) is a Sanskrit technical term translating in English to “sugar” (either granulated or candied) or “glucose”, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The literal translation of Śarkarā is “pebbles” and eventually became the word for hard sugar crystals (drained from syrup). The word became Shakra through the Persian language, Sukkar through the Arabic language, and in Europa it is now known as Sugar in the English language.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Śarkara (शर्कर) refers to “soil consisting predominantly of gravels”, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil [viz., Śarkara], mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Agriculture: A Survey

Śarkara (शर्कर) refers to “(land) full of pebbles and pieces of limestone” and represents one of the twelve types of lands mentioned in the Amarakoṣa and classified according to fertility of the soil, irrigation and physical characteristics. Agriculture (kṛṣi) is frequently mentioned in India’s ancient literature.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Śarkarā (शर्करा) (or Śārkara, Śarkara) refers to “sugar”, according to the Arthaśāstra II.15.15, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Chewing of sugarcane (ikṣu) is referred to in Atharvaveda. Pāṇini mentions the plantations of sugar cane. Kauṭilya mentions of some products of sugarcane such as phāṇita (inspissated juice of sugarcane), guḍa (jaggery), khaṇḍa (raw sugar), matsyaṇḍikā (sugar candy) and śarkarā (sugar).

Śarkarā is mentioned by Suśruta (Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 45.163) who states that if the derivatives of sugar cane like guḍa, śarkarā, khaṇḍa, phāṇita become more white, they become more cold, sweeter, more pure and more difficult to digest. According to Vāgbhaṭa (Aṣṭāṅgasaṅgraha Sūtrasthāna VI.98), śarkara was considered the best and phāṇita the worst. [...] According to Ayurvedic Saṃhita treatises, intoxicating drinks can be prepared with rice (surā), sugar (śārkara), and unboiled juice of sugarcane (śīdhu). According to Suśruta, in the preparation of these drinks, when surā is used instead of water it was called surāsavā. Liquors were also prepared with madhūka flowers and honey.

Śarkarā or “sugar” is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., śarkarā (sugar)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., bhadramusta (a kind of cyperus)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Śarkarā (sugar) is also mentioned as a remedy for indigestion caused by fruit of tindukī (Diospyros embryopteris).

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Evaluation of Cyavanaprāśa on Health and Immunity related Parameters in Healthy Children

Śarkara (शर्कर) refers to “crystal sugar”, and is used in the Ayurvedic formulation known as Cyavanaprāśa: an Ayurvedic health product that helps in boosting immunity.—Cyavanaprāśa has been found to be effective as an immunity booster, vitalizer and a preventer of day to day infections and allergies such as common cold and cough etc. It is a classical Ayurvedic formulation comprising ingredients such as Śarkara. [...] Cyavanaprāśa can be consumed in all seasons as it contains weather friendly ingredients which nullify unpleasant effects due to extreme environmental and climatic conditions.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Śarkarā (शर्करा) refers to “lithuria” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning śarkarā] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Śarkarā (शर्करा) refers to “small pieces of broken earthenware”. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.250)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (S) next»] — Sharkara in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śarkarā (शर्करा).—Sugar;1 an article for śrāddha.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 7. 13.
  • 2) Ib. 17. 30; 92. 2; 266. 51; 279. 9.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Śarkarā (शर्करा) refers to the “fruit sugar” (rock candy), according to the Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta 2.3.44ff—Accordingly:—“[...] the preparation made with coconut pulp mixed with curd and rock candy [viz., śarkarā] was very sweet. There was a curry made of banana flowers and squash boiled in milk, all in great quantity.. [...] Thus Lord Kṛṣṇa was offered all the food, and the Lord took it very pleasantly”

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Śarkara (शर्कर) is a Sanskrit word referring to “gravel”, “gritty”, or it can refer to “a pebble”, “small stone”.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śarkarā (शर्करा).—f (S) Sugar. 2 Gravel: also the disease of this name.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śarkarā (शर्करा).—f Sugar. Gravel.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śarkarā (शर्करा).—[śṝ-karan kasya netvam Uṇ.4.3]

1) Candied sugar; द्राक्षा म्लानमुखी जाता शर्करा चाश्मतां गता । सुभाषित- रसस्याग्रे सुधा भीता दिवं गता (drākṣā mlānamukhī jātā śarkarā cāśmatāṃ gatā | subhāṣita- rasasyāgre sudhā bhītā divaṃ gatā) || Subhāṣ.

2) A pebble, gravel, small stone; पादुकान्तरप्रविष्टेव शर्करा (pādukāntarapraviṣṭeva śarkarā) Mk.5.

3) Gravelly mould; Mb.12.192.1 (com. śarkarāḥ karkarasahitā mṛt).

4) Soil abounding in stony fragments, sand; अशर्करामविभ्रंशां समतीर्थामशैवलाम् (aśarkarāmavibhraṃśāṃ samatīrthāmaśaivalām) (puṣkariṇīm) Rām.3.73.11; सूपतीर्थां शुचिजलां शर्करापङ्कवर्जिताम् (sūpatīrthāṃ śucijalāṃ śarkarāpaṅkavarjitām) Mb.5.152.7; Bhāg.7.15.17.

5) A piece, fragment; कठिनकुचतटाग्रपाति पश्चादथ शतशर्करतां जगाम तासाम् (kaṭhinakucataṭāgrapāti paścādatha śataśarkaratāṃ jagāma tāsām) Śi.7.69.

6) A potshered.

7) Any hard particle, as in जलशर्करा (jalaśarkarā) a nodule of water; i. e. hail.

8) The disease called gravel.

9) Golden earth; ह्रद इव तिमिनागसंवृतः स्तिमितजलो मणिशङ्खशर्करः (hrada iva timināgasaṃvṛtaḥ stimitajalo maṇiśaṅkhaśarkaraḥ) Rām.2.81.16. (com. śarkarāḥ suvarṇa- khanimṛttikāḥ).

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Śārkara (शार्कर).—a. (- f.) [शर्करा अण् (śarkarā aṇ)]

1) Made of sugar, sugary.

2) Stony, gravelly; P.V.2.15.

-raḥ 1 A gravelly place.

2) The froth or scum of milk.

3) Cream.

4) Molasses.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śarkarā (शर्करा).—f.

(-rā) 1. A potsherd, the fragrant of a broken pot. 2. A stony nodule, or gravel. 3. A soil or spot abounding in stony or gritty fragments. 4. Clayed or candid sugar. 5. A part, a piece. 6. Gravel, (the disease.) E. śṝ to injure, Unadi aff. karan .

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Śārkara (शार्कर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) 1. Stony, gravelly. 2. Sugary. m.

(-raḥ) 1. The froth or skim of milk. 2. Cream. 3. A gravelly place. E. śarkarā sugar, gravel, &c., aff. aṇ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śarkarā (शर्करा).— (probably from vb. śṛ10, but cf. karkara), f. 1. A potsherd. 2. Gravel. 3. Stone, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 432. 4. A part. 5. A soil abounding in stony fragments. 6. Clayed or candied sugar, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 423; 185, 21; [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 79, 16.

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Śārkara (शार्कर).—i. e. śarkarā + a, I. adj. 1. Stony. 2. Sugary. Ii. m. The froth of milk, cream.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śarkara (शर्कर).—[adjective] consisting of gravel or grit; [masculine] pebble, also = [feminine] śarkarā gravel, grit, brown sugar.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Śarkarā (शर्करा) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—[anonymous] Oppert. Ii, 5578.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śarkara (शर्कर):—mf(ā)n. consisting of gravel or grit, gritty, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

2) m. a pebble, small stone, [Kauśika-sūtra]

3) (mc.) = śarkarā (See [compound])

4) a kind of drum, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

5) Name of a fabulous aquatic being, [Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa]

6) ([plural]) Name of a people, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

7) f(ā and ī). See below.

8) Śarkarā (शर्करा):—[from śarkara] f. (ifc. f(ā). ) gravel, grit. pebbles, shingle, gravelly mould or soil (mostly [plural]), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

9) [v.s. ...] gravel (as a disease), [Suśruta]

10) [v.s. ...] hardening of the flesh, [ib.]

11) [v.s. ...] hardening of the ear-wax, [ib.]

12) [v.s. ...] ground or candied sugar, [Kāvya literature; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Suśruta]

13) [v.s. ...] a fragment or piece of broken earthenware, potsherd, [Naiṣadha-carita]

14) Śarkāra (शर्कार):—mf(ī)n. [gana] gaurādi.

15) Śārkara (शार्कर):—[from śārka] mf(ī)n. ([from] śarkarā) gravelly, stony, [Pāṇini 5-2, 105]

16) [v.s. ...] made of sugar, sugary, [Suśruta]

17) [v.s. ...] m. a stony or gravelly place, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

18) [v.s. ...] the froth or skim of milk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] n. Name of two Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa] (also [wrong reading] for śākvara).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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