Sharkara, Śārkara, Śarkarā, Śarkara: 30 definitions

Introduction:

Sharkara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śārkara and Śarkarā and Śarkara can be transliterated into English as Sarkara or Sharkara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śarkarā (शर्करा) is a Sanskrit technical term translating in English to “sugar” (either granulated or candied) or “glucose”, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The literal translation of Śarkarā is “pebbles” and eventually became the word for hard sugar crystals (drained from syrup). The word became Shakra through the Persian language, Sukkar through the Arabic language, and in Europa it is now known as Sugar in the English language.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Śarkara (शर्कर) refers to “soil consisting predominantly of gravels”, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil [viz., Śarkara], mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Sarkara in the Oriya language is the name of a plant identified with Emilia scabra DC. ex Wight from the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family. For the possible medicinal usage of sarkara, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Agriculture: A Survey

Śarkara (शर्कर) refers to “(land) full of pebbles and pieces of limestone” and represents one of the twelve types of lands mentioned in the Amarakoṣa and classified according to fertility of the soil, irrigation and physical characteristics. Agriculture (kṛṣi) is frequently mentioned in India’s ancient literature.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Śarkarā (शर्करा) (or Śārkara, Śarkara) refers to “sugar”, according to the Arthaśāstra II.15.15, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Chewing of sugarcane (ikṣu) is referred to in Atharvaveda. Pāṇini mentions the plantations of sugar cane. Kauṭilya mentions of some products of sugarcane such as phāṇita (inspissated juice of sugarcane), guḍa (jaggery), khaṇḍa (raw sugar), matsyaṇḍikā (sugar candy) and śarkarā (sugar).

Śarkarā is mentioned by Suśruta (Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 45.163) who states that if the derivatives of sugar cane like guḍa, śarkarā, khaṇḍa, phāṇita become more white, they become more cold, sweeter, more pure and more difficult to digest. According to Vāgbhaṭa (Aṣṭāṅgasaṅgraha Sūtrasthāna VI.98), śarkara was considered the best and phāṇita the worst. [...] According to Ayurvedic Saṃhita treatises, intoxicating drinks can be prepared with rice (surā), sugar (śārkara), and unboiled juice of sugarcane (śīdhu). According to Suśruta, in the preparation of these drinks, when surā is used instead of water it was called surāsavā. Liquors were also prepared with madhūka flowers and honey.

Śarkarā or “sugar” is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., śarkarā (sugar)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., bhadramusta (a kind of cyperus)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Śarkarā (sugar) is also mentioned as a remedy for indigestion caused by fruit of tindukī (Diospyros embryopteris).

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Evaluation of Cyavanaprāśa on Health and Immunity related Parameters in Healthy Children

Śarkara (शर्कर) refers to “crystal sugar”, and is used in the Ayurvedic formulation known as Cyavanaprāśa: an Ayurvedic health product that helps in boosting immunity.—Cyavanaprāśa has been found to be effective as an immunity booster, vitalizer and a preventer of day to day infections and allergies such as common cold and cough etc. It is a classical Ayurvedic formulation comprising ingredients such as Śarkara. [...] Cyavanaprāśa can be consumed in all seasons as it contains weather friendly ingredients which nullify unpleasant effects due to extreme environmental and climatic conditions.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Śarkarā (शर्करा) refers to “lithuria” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning śarkarā] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Śarkarā (शर्करा) refers to “sugar” and is used in the various Anupāna (“drink take”), according to sections on the treatment of Horses (Gajāyurveda or Aśvāyurveda) in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—The Anupāna i.e. the drink take along with or after medicine was important in treatment. Because it may help in carrying, absorption, assimilation and enhancing action of the drugs. Normally the selection of anupāna is done depends upon disease, doṣa etc.—[...] In diseases of the deranged and aggravated vāyu the medicine should be administered through the taila (oil), or in combination with śarkarā (sugar), ājya/ghṛita (ghee) or toya (water).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Śarkarā (शर्करा) refers to “small pieces of broken earthenware”. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.250)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Sharkara in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śarkarā (शर्करा).—Sugar;1 an article for śrāddha.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 7. 13.
  • 2) Ib. 17. 30; 92. 2; 266. 51; 279. 9.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Śarkarā (शर्करा) refers to the “fruit sugar” (rock candy), according to the Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta 2.3.44ff—Accordingly:—“[...] the preparation made with coconut pulp mixed with curd and rock candy [viz., śarkarā] was very sweet. There was a curry made of banana flowers and squash boiled in milk, all in great quantity.. [...] Thus Lord Kṛṣṇa was offered all the food, and the Lord took it very pleasantly”

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Śarkarā (शर्करा) or Śarkarālauha is the name of an Ayurvedic recipe defined in the fourth volume of the fifth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 10, Śūla: pain in the belly). These remedies are classified as Iatrochemistry and form part of the ancient Indian science known as Rasaśāstra (medical alchemy). However, since it is an ayurveda treatment it should be taken with caution and in accordance with rules laid down in the texts.

Accordingly, when using such recipes (e.g., śarkarā-lauha): “the minerals (uparasa), poisons (viṣa), and other drugs (except herbs), referred to as ingredients of medicines, are to be duly purified and incinerated, as the case may be, in accordance with the processes laid out in the texts.” (see introduction to Iatro chemical medicines)

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śarkara (शर्कर) refers to “pebbles and sand”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The dark spots, also known as ketus, the sons of Rāhu are Tāmasa, Kīlaka and the like, and are 33 in number. How they affect the earth depends upon their color, position and shape. [...] When the spots appear on the solar disc the waters will get disturbed; the sky will be filled with dust; high winds capable of breaking down the tops of mountains and of trees, will carry pebbles and sand [i.e., sa-śarkara] along their course”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Śarkarā (शर्करा) refers to “candied sugar”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[The intercourse (saṃga)]:—[...] He should dry brahmamaṇḍūkī together with its roots in the shade. He should mix it with grape-juice, candied sugar (śarkarā) and ghee. He should have it three times [a day] for three months in portions measuring a dice as food and drink and he should drink milk. His semen will not deteriorate in millions of years if he practises sex [with Māyā]. His [semen] will never ever wane. It is for the rejuvenation of the body, O Priyā. [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Śarkarā (शर्करा) refers to “(white) sugar” (used for worship), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.39-45]—“[...] He worships with a mixture of white sandalwood, dust-colored powdered camphor, seeds, grain, and sesame, [mixed together] with white sugar (sita-śarkarā) [that has been] combined with ghee and milk. All meditation done with effort and volition is the highest, etc. [and] causes one to thrive, etc. If, while [performing the agreed mediation], worshiping with Mṛtyujit [in mind, the king] obtains great peace [mahāśanti] instantly”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Śarkara (शर्कर) is a Sanskrit word referring to “gravel”, “gritty”, or it can refer to “a pebble”, “small stone”.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śarkarā (शर्करा).—f (S) Sugar. 2 Gravel: also the disease of this name.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śarkarā (शर्करा).—f Sugar. Gravel.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śarkarā (शर्करा).—[śṝ-karan kasya netvam Uṇādi-sūtra 4.3]

1) Candied sugar; द्राक्षा म्लानमुखी जाता शर्करा चाश्मतां गता । सुभाषित- रसस्याग्रे सुधा भीता दिवं गता (drākṣā mlānamukhī jātā śarkarā cāśmatāṃ gatā | subhāṣita- rasasyāgre sudhā bhītā divaṃ gatā) || Subhāṣ.

2) A pebble, gravel, small stone; पादुकान्तरप्रविष्टेव शर्करा (pādukāntarapraviṣṭeva śarkarā) Mṛcchakaṭika 5.

3) Gravelly mould; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.192.1 (com. śarkarāḥ karkarasahitā mṛt).

4) Soil abounding in stony fragments, sand; अशर्करामविभ्रंशां समतीर्थामशैवलाम् (aśarkarāmavibhraṃśāṃ samatīrthāmaśaivalām) (puṣkariṇīm) Rām.3.73.11; सूपतीर्थां शुचिजलां शर्करापङ्कवर्जिताम् (sūpatīrthāṃ śucijalāṃ śarkarāpaṅkavarjitām) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.152.7; Bhāgavata 7.15.17.

5) A piece, fragment; कठिनकुचतटाग्रपाति पश्चादथ शतशर्करतां जगाम तासाम् (kaṭhinakucataṭāgrapāti paścādatha śataśarkaratāṃ jagāma tāsām) Śiśupālavadha 7.69.

6) A potshered.

7) Any hard particle, as in जलशर्करा (jalaśarkarā) a nodule of water; i. e. hail.

8) The disease called gravel.

9) Golden earth; ह्रद इव तिमिनागसंवृतः स्तिमितजलो मणिशङ्खशर्करः (hrada iva timināgasaṃvṛtaḥ stimitajalo maṇiśaṅkhaśarkaraḥ) Rām.2.81.16. (com. śarkarāḥ suvarṇa- khanimṛttikāḥ).

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Śārkara (शार्कर).—a. (- f.) [शर्करा अण् (śarkarā aṇ)]

1) Made of sugar, sugary.

2) Stony, gravelly; P.V.2.15.

-raḥ 1 A gravelly place.

2) The froth or scum of milk.

3) Cream.

4) Molasses.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śarkarā (शर्करा).—f.

(-rā) 1. A potsherd, the fragrant of a broken pot. 2. A stony nodule, or gravel. 3. A soil or spot abounding in stony or gritty fragments. 4. Clayed or candid sugar. 5. A part, a piece. 6. Gravel, (the disease.) E. śṝ to injure, Unadi aff. karan .

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Śārkara (शार्कर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) 1. Stony, gravelly. 2. Sugary. m.

(-raḥ) 1. The froth or skim of milk. 2. Cream. 3. A gravelly place. E. śarkarā sugar, gravel, &c., aff. aṇ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śarkarā (शर्करा).— (probably from vb. śṛ10, but cf. karkara), f. 1. A potsherd. 2. Gravel. 3. Stone, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 432. 4. A part. 5. A soil abounding in stony fragments. 6. Clayed or candied sugar, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 423; 185, 21; [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 79, 16.

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Śārkara (शार्कर).—i. e. śarkarā + a, I. adj. 1. Stony. 2. Sugary. Ii. m. The froth of milk, cream.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śarkara (शर्कर).—[adjective] consisting of gravel or grit; [masculine] pebble, also = [feminine] śarkarā gravel, grit, brown sugar.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Śarkarā (शर्करा) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—[anonymous] Oppert. Ii, 5578.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śarkara (शर्कर):—mf(ā)n. consisting of gravel or grit, gritty, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

2) m. a pebble, small stone, [Kauśika-sūtra]

3) (mc.) = śarkarā (See [compound])

4) a kind of drum, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

5) Name of a fabulous aquatic being, [Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa]

6) ([plural]) Name of a people, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

7) f(ā and ī). See below.

8) Śarkarā (शर्करा):—[from śarkara] f. (ifc. f(ā). ) gravel, grit. pebbles, shingle, gravelly mould or soil (mostly [plural]), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

9) [v.s. ...] gravel (as a disease), [Suśruta]

10) [v.s. ...] hardening of the flesh, [ib.]

11) [v.s. ...] hardening of the ear-wax, [ib.]

12) [v.s. ...] ground or candied sugar, [Kāvya literature; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Suśruta]

13) [v.s. ...] a fragment or piece of broken earthenware, potsherd, [Naiṣadha-carita]

14) Śarkāra (शर्कार):—mf(ī)n. [gana] gaurādi.

15) Śārkara (शार्कर):—[from śārka] mf(ī)n. ([from] śarkarā) gravelly, stony, [Pāṇini 5-2, 105]

16) [v.s. ...] made of sugar, sugary, [Suśruta]

17) [v.s. ...] m. a stony or gravelly place, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

18) [v.s. ...] the froth or skim of milk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] n. Name of two Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa] (also [wrong reading] for śākvara).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śarkarā (शर्करा):—(rā) 1. f. A potsherd; gravel; gravelly ground; a piece; candied sugar; name of a metre.

2) Śārkara (शार्कर):—(raḥ) 1. m. Idem, or skim of milk. a. Stony, gravelly.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śarkara (शर्कर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Sakkara, Sakkarā, Sikkarā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sharkara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sharkara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Śarkarā (शर्करा):—(nf) sugar, saccharose; ~[rāmaya] sacchariferous; ~[rāmāpī] saccharimeter; ~[rīya] saccharine.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śārkara (ಶಾರ್ಕರ):—

1) [adjective] (said of a tract of land) having small pebbles and loose pieces of quartz stones.

2) [adjective] of or made of sugar.

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Śārkara (ಶಾರ್ಕರ):—[noun] a tract of land having small pebbles or loose pieces of quartz stones.

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Sarkāra (ಸರ್ಕಾರ):—

1) [noun] the system or a body of governing a state or country; government.

2) [noun] a master; a lord.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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