Shadja, Ṣaḍja: 13 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Shadja means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Ṣaḍja can be transliterated into English as Sadja or Shadja, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Ṣaḍja (षड्ज) refers to the first of the seven “musical notes” (svara), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6, chapter 19 and chapter 28. These seven notes are part of the ‘vocal representation’ (vācika), which is used in communicating the meaning of the drama and calling forth the sentiment (rasa). The seven notes (svara) are to be used in different sentiments (rasa). For example, ṣaḍja and ṛṣabha are to be used in the heroic (vīra) and the furious (raudra) sentiment.

The presiding deity of the ṣaḍja musical note (svara) is defined by various sources:

Nāradīyā-śīkṣā 1.5.13-14 mentions that the ṣaḍja note is sung by Agni.
Bṛhaddeśī 75-76 mentions Brahmā as the presiding deity of ṣaḍja.
Saṅgītaratnākara 1.3.57-58 mentions Vahni (Agni) as the presiding deity of ṣaḍja.
Saṃgītamakaranda 1.1.38, Idem.
Cf. Saṃgītarāja 2.1.1.264.

The following animal sounds are associated with this note:

Nāradīyā-śīkṣā 1.5.3 assigns this note to the cry of the peacock (mayūra).
Bṛhaddeśī 64, p13, 2.1-5, Idem.
Saṃgītamakaranda 1.1.13, Idem.
Saṅgītaratnākara 1.3.4.6, Idem.
Cf. Saṃgītarāja 2.1.1.212.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Ṣaḍja (षड्ज).—The sixteenth kalpa; the sages, called Ṣaḍjanas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 34.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shiksha (linguistics: phonetics, phonology etc.)

Source: Google Books: Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music [shiksha]

Ṣaḍja (षड्ज) refers to the first of six notes (svara) in Indian music.—Because it is situated in the nose, the throad, the chest, the palate, the tongue and the teeth, and because it springs from these six, it is traditionally called ṣaḍja. (Nāradīyā-śikṣā 1.5.7-11)

context information

Shiksha (शिक्षा, śikṣā) deals with Sanskrit linguistics and represents a branch of vedanga (vedic ancillary science). Shiksha deals with subjects such as phonetics, phonology, study of sound, letters of the Sanskrit alphabet and related topics. Much attention is also given to the study of recitation (patha) of Vedic verses.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Ṣaḍja (षड्ज).—Illustration of the ṣaḍja-svara according to 15th century art.—The colour of the body of ṣaḍja-svara is red like copper. He has six heads and four hands. He holds lotus flowers in two hands and a vīṇā (Indian lute) with the other two hands. His vehicle is a peacock. The colour of his scarf is yellow with a black design and the colour of the lower garment is blue like a sky with a red design.

The illustrations (of, for example Ṣaḍja) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study

Ṣaḍja (षड्ज) or Ṣaḍjagītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Ṣaḍja-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.

context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ṣaḍja (षड्ज).—m S (ṣaṣ & ज. Born of six. Supposed to require for the articulation of it the employment of the tongue, teeth, palate, nose, throat, and chest.) The fourth note of the Hindu gamut.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ṣaḍja (षड्ज).—m The fourth note of the Hindu gamut.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣaḍja (षड्ज).—m.

(-ḍjaḥ) The first of the seven primary notes in music. E. ṣaṣ six, ja born: supposed to require for its articulation the employment of the tongue, teeth, palate, nose, throat, and chest.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣaḍja (षड्ज).—i. e. ṣaṣ-ja, m. The fourth note of the Hindu gamut, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 1, 39.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ṣaḍja (षड्ज):—[=ṣaḍ-ja] [from ṣaḍ > ṣaṣ] m. ‘six-born’, Name of the first or ([according to] to some) of the fourth of the 7 Svaras or primary notes of music (so called because it is supposed to be produced by six organs, viz. tongue, teeth, palate, nose, throat, and chest; the other six Svaras are Ṛṣabha, Gāndhāra, Madhyama, Pañcama, Dhaivata, and Niṣāda, of which Niṣ° and Gāndh° are referred to the Udātta, Ṛṣ° and Dhaiv° to the An-udātta, while Ṣaḍ-ja and the other two are referred to the Svarita accent; the sound of the Ṣaḍ-ja is said to resemble the note of peacocks), [Mahābhārata; Raghuvaṃśa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] Name of the 16th Kalpa or day of Brahmā, [Catalogue(s)]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣaḍja (षड्ज):—(ḍjaḥ) 1. m. The 4th note of the Hindu gamut.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ṣaḍja (षड्ज) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sajja.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shadja in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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