by G.V. Tagare | 1958 | 319,243 words | ISBN-10: 8120838246 | ISBN-13: 9788120838246
This page describes dissertation on music which is Chapter 61 of the English translation of the Brahmanda Purana: one of the oldest puranas including common Puranic elements such as cosmogony, genealogy, ethics, geography and yoga. Traditionally, the Brahmandapurana is said to consist of 12,000 verses metrical Sanskrit verses.
1-3. Understand the genealogy of the sons of Manu in detail. Pṛṣadhra injured the cow of his preceptor at night. At the close of it, he incurred the curse of the noble-souled Cyavana and became a Śūdra.
The successors of Nābhāga were a thousand groups of Kṣatriyas who were valorous.
6-7. On seeing the magnificence of Yajña, Bṛhaspati became angry with him. During the Yajña, perforníed by Saṃvarta, he became extremely furious for the destruction of all the worlds. But he was pacified by the gods: Marutta the emperor obtained Nariṣyanta as his heir.
10-11. The son of Bandhumān was the righteous-souled king Vegavān. Budha was the son of Vegavān and Tṛṇabindu was the son of Budha. He became a king at the beginning of third Tretāyuga. Iḍaviḍā was his daughter who became the mother of Viśravas.
17-20. Janamejaya’s son named Pramati was well-renowned. On account of potentiality of Tṛṇabindu all the Vaiśālaka kings with Viśālā as their capital were long-lived, noble-souled, heroic and very virtuous. Śaryāti begot twins. The son was well-renowned by the name of Ānarta. His daughter was Sukanyā who became the wife of Cyavana. Ānarta’s heir named Reva was very powerful. His realm was called Ānarta and the capital city was Kuśasthalī (later Dvārakā).
21-22. He was the eldest of a hundred brothers. After obtaining the kingdom and the capital Kuśasthalī, he went near Brahmā accompanied by his daughter. In the presence of Brahmā, he listened to Gāndharva Music for a short while (A Muhūrta i.e. 48 minutes) as reckoned by the lord of the Devas, but many Yugas according to human calculation. He returned to his city still a young man. The city then was inhabited by the Yādavas.
24. On hearing the story with all facts, Revata (Raivata) the suppressor of foes gave his daughter of good holy rites named Revatī to Baladeva in marriage. Thereafter, he went to the peak of Meru and became engaged in penance.
25. Rāma, the noble one, sported with Revatī.
On hearing that story the sages asked him subsequently.
The sages asked:
26-28. How was it that old age did not affect Revatī or Kakudmin, O highly intelligent one, even after the lapse of a long time viz. many Yugas?
We are desirous of listening to this. Tell us Gāndharva (the science of Music) too.
To a person who goes to the world of Brahmā there is neither old age nor hunger nor thirst not even the fear from death. No ailments afflict him. Since I have been asked about Gāndharva (the science of Music). O great and excellent sages of good holy rites, I shall explain it accurately in details.
The Mūrcchanās of the Ma-scale are known as Sauvīrā, Madhyama-grāmā, Hariṇāsyā (Hariṇāśca in Bd. P. is wrong), Kālopabalopetā (also known as ‘Kālopanatā’), Śuddhamadhyamā, Śārṅgī and Pāvanī (nagniṃ ca pauṣā vai in the text is not correct) and Hṛtyakā Dṛṣṭvā kām’ in the text), in order.
33-34a. Now understand the Mūrcchanās of Sa-Scale (Ṣaḍja-grāma): (1) Uttara—mandrā, (2) Rajanī and also as (3) Uttarāyatā (for Unnarāyatā of Bd. P.), (4) Madhya-Ṣaḍja (but Vā. P. Śuddha Ṣaḍja) and also the other one is (5) Abhirudgatā (for Abhi-mudgaṇā in the Bd. P.)
35-37. (The names of the Tānas are as follows:)
(1) Agniṣṭomika, (2) Vājapeyika, [Vā. P. adds (3)Pauṇḍraka, (4) Aśvamedhika], (5) Rājasūyaka (conjectural emendation for ‘yava-rātasūyastu’ in the text). The sixth is ‘Suvarṇaka,’ the Seventh is ‘Gosava’, the eighth is Mahāvṛṣṭika, the ninth is ‘Brahmadāna,’ the next (10) is Prājāpatya, (11) Nāgayakṣāśraya, (12) Gottara, (13) Paḍakrānta (Vā. P. ‘Haya-Krānta’), (14) Mṛgakrānta, (15) the charming Viṣṇukrānta, (16) the most desirable (vareṇya) Sūryakānta (Vā. P. reading for the obscure Sūryakānta-dhareṇya in Bd. P. is accepted), (17) the well-known Mattakokila (Matta-kokila) of Vā. P. is accepted for Santakokila in the text).
38a. Obscure and untraced inVā P. and elsewhere.
38b. (The names of Tānas continued:) (18) Sāvitra, (19) Ardha-sāvitra (20) Sarvatobhadra [After 38-b. here—of Vā. P. adds the following Tānas: Suvarṇa, Sutandra, Viṣṇu, Vaiṣṇuvara, Sāgara and Vijaya which is charming to all].
39. (21) The charming Adhātrya, (22) Gandharvānupata (23) Alambuṣeṣṭa, (24) Viṣṇu (25) Vaiṇavara.
40a. (26) ‘Sāgaravijaya’ which is charming to all beings (Vā. P. gives ‘Sāgara’ and ‘Vijaya’).
43a. The fourteen; similarly they desire here fifteen (according to) Nārada.
43b. (Obscure but from Vā. P. it appears that the presiding deities of the Mūrcchanās are now enumerated. The Bd. P. text may tentatively be interpreted—on the basis of Vā. P. as follows)
44a. And also of the Uttarādi-Svara, god Brahmā is the presiding deity here. [devatāstrayaḥ’ of the Bd. P. is probably ‘devatātra ca’, as in Vā. P.]
44b. Hariṇāsyā is originated in the region of Hari.
46a. That is Kalopanītā and hence its presiding Deity is Māruta emended as: Mārutaścātra daivatam, as in Vā. P.).
47a. Hence, on account of Mṛgas (deer) it (the Mūrcchanā is called Mārgī and the Lion is its deity.
(Tentative meaning: ‘That is associated with hermitages and various human voices’ (?)]
48a. As the Mūrcchanā is associated with rajas (atmosphere/mist), it is called Rajanī.
48b. Obscure (If allied with Vā. P.:)
Uttaramandrā is known as having Ṣaḍja as its deity.
49. Obscure (If allied with Vā. P.):
Hence Uttara-tāla is known first as well extended.
50. Obscure (emended from Vā. P.)
Because of its extension and being later (in the order) Uttarāyatā having Dha (Dhaivata) as the starting point, is the Mūrcchanā, the deity of which is the manes, the deities of Śrāddha.
51a. The great sages worship the Fire-god with the Śuddha Ṣaḍja (Pure Sa-) note. Hence, one should know it as Śuddha-Ṣaḍjikā (Vā. P.: This Mūrcchanā starts from the Pañcama note).
51b. is obscure, hence the reading in Vā. P. is followed.
52a. In this manner employing these Mūrcchanās in which he has got such Bhāvanā (particular faith).
53a (Obscure but if allied with Vā. P.)
The Mūrcchanās do not approach the songs, affected by the poisonous sight of the serpents (Nāgas).
53b (Corrupt and obscure but with the help of Vā. P.)
Footnotes and references:
The word maṇḍala suggests the ascent and descent of seven notes (known as svara-saptaka) (see V. 30)
Note—The Purāṇa does not mention the remaining two viz. Matsarīkṛtā and Aśvakrāntā.
Strangely enough, this Text and Vā. P. are silent about other Mūrcchanās of this scale. The NP. II. 50.35b.36a records them as follows: Nādī, visālā, Sumukhi, Citrā, Citravatī, Mukhā and Balā. Leaving Ga-scale with mention of one Mūrcchanā, the text now enumerates Tānas. The omissions in the Bd.P. are made good by reference to Vā. P.
The Purāṇic concept of a Tāna is different from that of the present day one.
The line is as follows: tenavānityapavaśapiśācātīvanahyapi.
For 40b here of, Vā. P reads: Haṃsa, Jyeṣṭha and Tumburupriya.
For this Vā. P. adds: Abhiramya, Śukra, Puṇya, Puṇyāraka. There are twenty (Tānas) in Ma-scale and fourteen in Sa-scale.
For this Vā. P. states: They desire similarly fifteen belonging to Ga-grāma.
Mūrcchanās with Sādhāraṇa Svaras arc called so. The Sādhāraṇa Svaras are:
(I) Antara Gāndhāra i.e. Modem Śuddha Gāndhāra.
(II) Kākalī Niṣāda=Mod. Tivra Niṣāda.