Sat, aka: Shat, Śat, Śaṭ, Ṣāṭ, Saṭ, Sāṭ, Sāt; 8 Definition(s)


Sat means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śat and Śaṭ and Ṣāṭ can be transliterated into English as Sat or Shat, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Śat (शत्).—tad. affix शत् (śat) as seen in the words त्रिंशत्, चत्वारिंशत् (triṃśat, catvāriṃśat) etc., cf. पङिक्तविंशतित्रि-शच्चत्वरिंशत् (paṅiktaviṃśatitri-śaccatvariṃśat) P. V.1.59.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

The definitive word for reality is ‘sat’ or existent. Each existent is with origination–decay and permanence simultaneously. Thus reality is said to be persistence with change. Existents are characterised by dravya (substance) and the realms of substances are classified as jīva (living beings with consciousness) and non living beings (ajīva or without consciousne ss).

Source: Jain eLibrary: 7th International Summer School for Jain Studies

1) Sat (सत्, “existence”).—What is meant by truth /reality (sat)? Sat is defined as existence (astitva) of an entity.

According to Tattvārthasūtra 1.8, “the categories and their details are undefrstood in detail in terms of existence (sat), number (enumeration), place or abode, extent of space touched (pervasion), continuity /time, interval of time, thought-activity, and reciprocal comparison”.

2) Sat (सत्, “reality”).—That which is with origination-destruction and permanence simultaneously is sat / real.

3) Sat refers to “right knowledge”, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.32, “Owing to lack of discrimination between the real and the unreal, wrong knowledge is whimsical as that of a lunatic”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Sat (सत्, “existence”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.29, “Existence (bring or sat) is the different of substance” and 54.30, “Existence (sat) is characterized by origination (utpāda), disappearance (destruction) (vyaya) and permanence (dhrauvya)”. Is the difference in origination, destruction and permanence due to time or the state? All these three activities take place at the same time and hence the difference between these three is the state difference only.

How do the three states exist simultaneously? At any time instant, the old mode is being destroyed and the new mode is originating while the entity /substance retains (or does not change or leave) its own nature which is permanence. Hence all three states co-exist. Are the trio of origination, destruction and permanence different or same from different viewpoints? From the mode viewpoint, substance keep on originating and destroying continuously wile from substance viewpoint, they always stay the same. Hence they are both different and same.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

ṣaṭ (षट्).—S Six. As ṣaṣ is the word, ṣaṭ & ṣaḍ are used only in comp. as ṣaṭakōṇa, ṣaṭaprakāra, ṣaḍasra, ṣaḍaguṇita &c.

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sat (सत्).—n S The true (i. e. real, substantive, self-subsisting) being;--a designation of Brahm as the real and sole substance of the (illusively) material universe. sat here has no implication of moral truth or moral goodness. 2 m A holy being, a saint.

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sat (सत्).—a S True, real, actual, truly existing. 2 True, good, excellent, virtuous, right, fit, proper, true or good in the most extensive sense. Only in comp. and thus abundantly. Ex. satkarma, sat- kalpanā, satkṛta, satputra, satsaṅga, satpuruṣa, sadguṇa, sadvidyā, sadvāsanā, satsamāgama, satsēvā, sadācāra, sadgati, sadguru, sadgṛhastha, saddharma, sadbhāva. Of these, as they are current and useful words, and as they are not instantly recognizable and reducible by the student, the major portion will be inserted in order.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ṣaṭ (षट्).—a Six

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sat (सत्).—a True, real, actual. True, good, excellent, right, fit. Only in comp. Ex. satkarma, sadācāra. m A saint. n A true being-a designation of brahma as the real substance of the (illusory) material universe.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śaṭ (शट्).—I. 1 P. (śaṭati)

1) To be sick.

2) To divide, separate.

3) To be dissolved.

4) To be weary or dejected.

5) To go, -II. 1 Ā. (śāṭayate) To praise, flatter.

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Ṣāṭ (षाट्).—ind. A vocative particle; interjection of calling.

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Saṭ (सट्).—I. 1 P. (saṭati) To form a part. -II. 1 U. (sāṭayati-te) To show, display, manifest.

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Sat (सत्).—a. (- f.)

1) Being, existing, existent; सन्तः स्वतः प्रकाशन्ते गुणा न परतो नृणाम् (santaḥ svataḥ prakāśante guṇā na parato nṛṇām) Bv.1.12; सत्कल्पवृक्षे वने (satkalpavṛkṣe vane) Ś.7.12.

2) Real, essential, true; Bṛ. Up.2.3.1.

3) Good, virtuous, chaste; सती सती योगविसृष्टदेहा (satī satī yogavisṛṣṭadehā) Ku.1. 21; Ś.5.17.

4) Noble, worthy, high; as in सत्कुलम् (satkulam).

5) Right, proper.

6) Best, excellent.

7) Venerable, respectable.

8) Wise, learned.

9) Handsome, beautiful.

1) Firm, steady.

-m. A good or virtuous man, a sage; आदानं हि विसर्गाय सतां वारिमुचामिव (ādānaṃ hi visargāya satāṃ vārimucāmiva) R.4.86; अविरतं परकार्यकृतां सतां मधुरिमातिशयेन वचोऽमृतम् (avirataṃ parakāryakṛtāṃ satāṃ madhurimātiśayena vaco'mṛtam) Bv.1.113; Bh.2. 78; R.1.1.

-n. 1) That which really exists, entity, existence, essence.

2) The really existent truth, reality.

3) Good; as in सदसत् (sadasat) q. v.

4) Brahman or the Supreme Spirit.

5) Ved. Water.

6) The primary cause (kāraṇa); य ईक्षिताऽहं रहितोऽप्यसत्सतोः (ya īkṣitā'haṃ rahito'pyasatsatoḥ) Bhāg.1.38.11.

7) (In gram.) The termination of the present participle. (satkṛ means 1) to respect, treat with respect, receive hospitably. 2) to honour, worship, adore. 3) to adorn.)

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Sāṭ (साट्).—1 U. (sāṭayati-te) To show, manifest.

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Sāt (सात्).—ind. A Taddhita affix added to a word to show that something is completely changed into the thing expressed by that word, or that it is left at the complete disposal or control of that thing; भस्मसात् भू (bhasmasāt bhū) 'to be completely reduced to ashes'; अग्निसात् कृत्वा (agnisāt kṛtvā) M.5; भस्मसात् कृतवः पितृद्विषः पात्रसाच्च वसुधां ससागराम् (bhasmasāt kṛtavaḥ pitṛdviṣaḥ pātrasācca vasudhāṃ sasāgarām) R.11.86; विभज्य मेरुर्न यदर्थिसात् कृतः (vibhajya merurna yadarthisāt kṛtaḥ) N.1.16; so ब्राह्मणसात्, राजसात् (brāhmaṇasāt, rājasāt) &c.; Śi.14.36.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śaṭ (शट्).—r. 1st cl. (śaṭati) 1. To be diseased or sick. 2. To divide, to pierce or separate. 3. To go. 4. To be low spirited, to be weary or dejected. r. 10th cl. (śāṭayate) To flatter, to praise.

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Ṣaṭ (षट्).—r. 1st cl. (ṣaṭati) To be a part or portion.

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Ṣāṭ (षाट्).—Ind. An interjection of calling.

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Saṭ (सट्).—r. 1st cl. (saṭati) To form a part. r. 10th cl. (sāṭayati-te) To show, to manifest.

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Sat (सत्).—mfn. (-san-santī-sat) 1. True. 2. Good, virtuous. 3. Being, existing. 4. Excellent, best. 5. Venerable, respectable. 6. Wise, learned. 7. Firm, steady. 8. Right, proper. f. (-satī) 1. A virtuous wife; in ordinary use applied especially to the wife, who burns herself with her husband’s corpse. 2. The goddess Uma. 3. A fragrant earth, commonly Surat-earth. 4. A species of the Pratishtha metre. n. (sat) 1. The true God, the always present and all-pervading spirit. 2. That which really is, entity, existence, essence. 3. Truth, reality. 4. That which is good. m. (-san) A virtuous man. Ind. (-sat) In composition, a particle of reverence or respect, implying, good, fit, &c.; as satkriyā virtue, doing what is right, &c. E. as to be, aff. of the participle of the present tense śatṛ .

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Sāṭ (साट्).—r. 10th cl. (sāṭayati-te) To make visible, to show.

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Sāt (सात्).—r. 10th cl. (sātayati-te) To give pleasure; according to some it is a Sautra root.

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Sāt (सात्).—Ind. A Tadhita affix which, when put after a word, denotes either a total change of anything into the thing expressed by that word, or complete control.

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Sāt (सात्).—n. (-sāt) Brahma, God. E. sāti to cause happiness, aff. kvip .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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