Parameshthin, Parameṣṭhi, Parameṣṭhin, Parameshthi: 21 definitions


Parameshthin means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Parameṣṭhi and Parameṣṭhin can be transliterated into English as Paramesthi or Parameshthi or Paramesthin or Parameshthin, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Parameshthin in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Itihasa

One of the "twenty-one Prajapatis"; Mahabharata, Book 1, Section 1.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Parameṣṭhī (परमेष्ठी).—The son of Indradyumna, who was the son of Tejas, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Tejas was the son of Sumati, whose ancestral lineage can be traced to Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being. Parameṣṭhī had a son named Pratihartā.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Parameṣṭhī (परमेष्ठी).—A king of Candravaṃśa (Lunar race). He was the son of Indradyumna and the father of Pratīhāra. (Chapter I, Aṃśa 1, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

2) Parameṣṭhī (परमेष्ठी).—A Vaidikasūktadraṣṭā. He was a disciple of Brahmā. (Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad). According to Jaimini Brāhmaṇa Parameṣṭhī was the disciple of Prajāpati.

3) Parameṣṭhī (परमेष्ठी).—A king of Pāñcāladeśa. He was born to Ajamīḍha of Nīlī. Parameṣṭhī and the sons of Duṣyanta, his brother, are known as Pāñcālas. (Ādi Parva, Mahābhārata).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Parameṣṭhin (परमेष्ठिन्) refers to the “great lord” and is used to describe Śiva, in the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.15. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] On arrival there, after paying respects to the lord [Śiva] with great excitement we lauded Him with various hymns with palms joined in reverence. The Devas said: [...] Obeisance to Thee, the ocean of the knowledge of Vedic texts. Obeisance to Thee, the great lord (Parameṣṭhin) and the ultimate goal of devotees and possessed of three attributes”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Parameṣṭhi (परमेष्ठि).—An attribute of Brahmā worshipped for overlordship.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 30; 2. 22; 3. 6; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 9. 27.

1b) A son of Devadyumna; his queen Suvarcalā; father of Pratiha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 15. 3.

1c) A son of Indradyumna.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 65; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 36. Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 55.

1d) Married the daughter of Dakṣa and became the father of Nārada.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 2. 13-18.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Parameshthin in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Parameṣṭhi (परमेष्ठि) is the name of an important person (viz., an Ācārya or Kavi) mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—(or Brahmā) One of the sixty-four disciples of Lord Śiva. He at first learned the Kāvyavidyā (poetics), and then advised it on the Sārasatya and other disciples.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Parameshthin in Shaivism glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Parameṣṭhin (परमेष्ठिन्) refers to the “great grand guru”, according to Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī’s Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī (on the Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā verse 4.16).—Accordingly, “This new, easy [path]—(easy) because it lacks in the (need for) skill in the external and internal exertions (usually required) for the (removal of one’s) afflictions, [practices] such as appropriate conduct [caryā] and breath exercises [prāṇāyāma]—which is included in all the secret śāstras, (and) is not well known since it has been concealed from public view, was first explained in the śāstra (entitled) the Śivadṛṣṭi by the venerable Somānanda, our great grand guru (parameṣṭhin-bhaṭṭāraka)”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Parameshthin in Jainism glossary
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Parameṣṭhin (परमेष्ठिन्) refers to “supreme” and is used to describe the Self (Ātman), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “This self itself is clearly a great ocean of excellent virtues. It is all-knowing, all-pervading, having all forms, supreme (parameṣṭhin) [and] pure”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parameshthin in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parameṣṭhin (परमेष्ठिन्).—a Standing at the head, highest, chief; परमेष्ठिनां प्रभुः (parameṣṭhināṃ prabhuḥ) Bhāgavata 1.89.58. -m.

1) An epithet of Brahman.

2) Of Śiva.

3) Of Viṣṇu.

4) Of Garuḍa.

5) Of Agni.

6) Any spiritual teacher.

7) (with Jainas) An Arhat.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parameṣṭhin (परमेष्ठिन्).—m. (-ṣṭhī) 1. A name of Bramha. 2. A Jina or deified teacher of the Jaina sect. 3. A kind of Salagram stone. 4. A Guru or spiritual guide. E. parame in the most exalted place, in heaven, sthā to be, Unadi aff. nin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parameṣṭhin (परमेष्ठिन्).—i. e. parama + i-sthin (vb. sthā), 1. m. The supreme being, a name of Brahman, Śiva, etc. 2. m. A proper name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parameṣṭhin (परमेष्ठिन्).—[adjective] standing in the highest place, chief, supreme; [Epithet] of [several] gods ([especially] Prajāpati), heroes, or sages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parameṣṭhi (परमेष्ठि):—[=parame-ṣṭhi] [from parame > para] m. a superior or a chief god of the Jainas, [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parameṣṭhin (परमेष्ठिन्):—[=parame-ṣṭhin] [from parame > para] mfn. standing at the head, highest, chief, principal, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of any supreme being, of Agni, [Atharva-veda]

3) [v.s. ...] of Prajā-pati, [ib.] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] a son of Pr°, [Brāhmaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] of Brahmā, [Mahābhārata]

6) [v.s. ...] of Śiva, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] of Viṣṇu, [Raghuvaṃśa]

8) [v.s. ...] of Garuḍa, [Mahābhārata]

9) [v.s. ...] of Manu Cakṣus, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) = -ṣṭhi, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] the teacher of the t° of any one’s t°, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a kind of Virāj, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

13) [v.s. ...] a kind of ammonite, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Aja-mīḍha, [Mahābhārata]

15) [v.s. ...] of a son of Indradyumna (Devadyumna), [Purāṇa]

16) [v.s. ...] [dual number] Viṣṇu and Śrī, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parameṣṭhin (परमेष्ठिन्):—[parame-ṣṭhin] (ṣṭhī) 5. m. Idem; Brahma; a Jaina; a guru; shālgrām.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parameṣṭhin (परमेष्ठिन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Paramiṭṭhi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parameshthin in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parameshthin in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paramēṣṭhi (ಪರಮೇಷ್ಠಿ):—

1) [noun] Brahma, the Creator of the Universe.

2) [noun] the Supreme God (referred to various gods as Śiva, Viṣṇu, Garuḍa, Fire, Jina,etc.).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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