Munda, Muṇḍa: 20 definitions
Munda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana
Muṇḍa (मुण्ड, “pumpkin gourd”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Muṇḍavināyaka, Muṇḍagaṇeśa and Muṇḍavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.
Muṇḍa is positioned in the North-Western corner of the second circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Sadar Bazr, near Chandi Devi”. Worshippers of Muṇḍa will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “giver of devotion”. His body is in the world below and head in Kāśī, supporting Kāśī-devī. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.20062, Lon. 82.58417 (or, 25°12'02.2"N, 82°35'03.0"E) (Google maps)
Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.
Muṇḍa, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Muṇḍa (मुण्ड).—A warrior of the country of Muṇḍa. In the great battle the Muṇḍas were present in the Kaurava’s army. (Śloka 9, Chapter 56, Bhīṣma Parva).
2) Munda (मुन्द).—An asura. (See under Caṇḍamuṇḍas.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Muṇḍa (मुण्ड) refers to a “scalp”, mentioned as one of the objects held in the hands of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.6. Accordingly:—“[...] Directly perceiving the lord of Durgā she [viz., Sandhyā] eulogised the lord of the worlds: [...] Obeisance to Thee, the Yogin whose Saguṇa form is pure, lovely, bedecked in jewels, as white and clean as camphor and which holds in its hand the desired boon, fearlessness, the trident and the scalp (muṇḍa)”.
2) Muṇḍa (मुण्ड) is the name of a deity who fought on Vīrabhadra’s side in his campaign to destroy Dakṣa’s sacrifice, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.37. Accordingly:—“[...] Vīrabhadra took up all the great miraculous weapons for his fight with Viṣṇu and roared like a lion. [...] A noisy terrible fight ensued between the Gaṇas and the guardians of the quarters, both roaring like lions. [...] The powerful hero Muṇḍa fought with Varuṇa surprising the three worlds with his great spear”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Muṇḍa (मुण्ड).—An Asura killed by the Devī.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 29. 75.
1b) A tribe.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 163. 66.
1c) A Janapada of the East.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 123.
1d) Shavelings in the guise of Sanyasins in Kaliyuga.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 58. 59.
1e) A dynasty of kings; thirteen in number.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 53.
Muṇḍa (मुण्ड) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.12, I.57, III.48.21, IX.44.90, XIV.8.15, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Muṇḍa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Muṇḍa (मुण्ड) refers to a “shaven head” (bald), which is the prescribed appearance for masks for the Buddhists (śākya), monks experts in Vedic studies (śrotriya), the Jain monks (nirgrantha), wandering ascetics (parivrāj), and the dīkṣita (those who have consecrated themselves for some rites or for a Vedic sacrifice), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Providing masks is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A king of Magadha, great grandson of Ajatasattu and son of Anuruddha. He slew his father and came to the throne, but, in turn, he was slain by his son Nagadasaka (Mhv.iv.2ff.; DA.i.153; Dvy.369).
It is probably this same king who is referred to in the Anguttara Nikaya (iii.57ff). His wife Bhadda died, and Munda gave himself up to complete despair and mummified the queens body. The kings Treasurer, Piyaka, consulted the Elder Narada who lived at Kukkutarama in Pataliputta and persuaded him to visit the king. Narada preached to him, and his sorrow vanished.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
muṇḍa : (adj.) shaven; void of vegetation; bare.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Muṇḍa, (adj.) (cp. BSk. muṇḍa) bald, shaven; a shaven, (bald-headed) ascetic, either a samaṇa, or a bhikkhu or (f.) bhikkhunī S. I, 175 (m. saṅghāṭi-pāruta); Vin. IV, 265 (f.); Sn. p. 80 (=muṇḍita-sīsa SnA 402).—kaṇṇa° with cropped or shorn ears (applied to a dog) Pv. II, 1210, cp. muṇḍaka.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
muṇḍa (मुंड).—n (muḍū Three. Telangi word.) The number three, and the stroke given, upon that number, to the viṭī in the game viṭīdāṇḍū. 2 (muṇḍa Head.) A square cloth of three or four cubits as a light turban or wrapper for the head.
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muṇḍa (मुंड).—n (S) muṇḍakī f muṇḍakēṃ n The head.
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muṇḍa (मुंड).—m n Grain (or money) in payment for a tenure of land, or for the use of cattle, or as a consideration for a money-loan.
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muṇḍa (मुंड).—a (muṇḍa S Shaven.) Wanting or exempt from interest--a money-loan.
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muṇḍā (मुंडा) [or मुंढा, muṇḍhā].—m The attendant upon a hijaḍā or hermaphrodite, when he goes his beggingrounds. As the Hindus may not suffer the hijaḍā to enter their houses, nor may even look upon his face, this muṇḍā, being a man of caste, demands and receives alms on the hijaḍā's account. Pr. hijaḍyācī jōḍa muṇḍyānēṃ khāvī. Called also kharakhara- muṇḍā & māmaramuṇḍā.
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muṇḍā (मुंडा).—m C A large waterpitcher of the kind called ḍērā. 2 Nozzle (as of a pakhāla &c.): also the mouth or head-opening (of a pakhāla).
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muṇḍā (मुंडा).—a muṇḍā m muṇḍāhāta m See muṇḍhā &c.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
muṇḍa (मुंड).—n muṇḍakī f muḍakēṃ n The head.
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muṇḍā (मुंडा).—m A water pitcher.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Muṇḍa (मुण्ड).—a. [muṇḍ-ghañ]
1) Shaved, bald; रावणश्च मया दृष्टो मुण्डस्तैलसमुक्षितः (rāvaṇaśca mayā dṛṣṭo muṇḍastailasamukṣitaḥ) Rām.5.27.19; चरन् भैक्ष्यं मुनिर्मुण्डः (caran bhaikṣyaṃ munirmuṇḍaḥ) Mb.12. 9.12.
2) Lopped, stripped of top leaves.
3) Blunt, pointless.
4) Ved. Hornless.
5) Low, mean.
-ṇḍaḥ 1 A man with a shaved or bald head; स्वप्नेऽवगाहतेऽत्यर्थं जलं मुण्डांश्च पश्यति (svapne'vagāhate'tyarthaṃ jalaṃ muṇḍāṃśca paśyati) Y.1.272.
2) A bald or shaven head.
3) The forehead.
4) A barber.
5) The trunk of a tree stripped of its top-branches; मुण्डतालवनानीव चकार स रथव्रजान् (muṇḍatālavanānīva cakāra sa rathavrajān) Mb.6.16.14.
6) An epithet of Rāhu.
7) Name of one of the twelve principal Upaniṣads; मुण्डमाण्डूक्य- तित्तिरिः (muṇḍamāṇḍūkya- tittiriḥ). -m. pl. Name of a people.
-ṇḍā 1 Name of a plant (muṇḍīrikā).
2) Bengal madder.
3) A female mendicant of a particular order.
-ṇḍam 1 The head; अङ्गं गलितं पलितं मुण्डम् (aṅgaṃ galitaṃ palitaṃ muṇḍam) Śaṅkarāchārya.
3) Iron.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Muṇḍa (मुण्ड).—(1) name of a king of Magadha, grandson of Ajātaśatru and ancestor of Aśoka: Divyāvadāna 369.10; probably the same as Pali id. (Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names)), tho his position in the gene- alogy is not quite the same; (2) adj. (?), in muṇḍa-śayanā- sana-vārika Mahāvyutpatti 9074, see s.v. vārika; follows śayanā- sana-v° 9073; Tibetan renders muṇḍa by ḥbogs pa (?perhaps removable?) or phogs; Chin. seems to intend curtains (mosquito-nets for the bed?).
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Muṇḍā (मुण्डा).—(Sanskrit Lex. id.), shaveling woman, contemp-tuous epithet of a Buddhist nun (compare muṇḍaka, °ika): Kal- panāmaṇḍitikā, Lüders, Kl. Sanskrit Texte 2, 44.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍā-ṇḍaṃ) 1. Shaved, bald, having no hair on the head. 2. Low, mean. mn.
(-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍaṃ) 1. The head. 2. The forehead. m.
(-ṇḍaḥ) 1. A bald pate. 2. A barber. 3. The name of a Daitya or Demon. 4. Rahu, the personified ascending node. 5. The trunk of a lopped tree. f.
(-ṇḍā) Bengal madder, (Rubia manjith.) E. muḍi to shave or cut, aff. ghañ .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Muṇḍa (मुण्ड).— (probably a form of a noun derived from mṛd, based on the original form mard), I. adj. 1. Shaved, bald, having no hair on the head, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 219. 2. Low, mean. Ii. m. and n. 1. The head, [Daśakumāracarita] in
Muṇḍa (मुण्ड).—[adjective] shaved, bald; hornless (cow or goat), lopped (tree); pointless, blunt. [masculine] bald-head, [Name] of a Daitya etc., [plural] [Name] of a people; [neuter] head.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Muṇḍa (मुण्ड):—[from muṇḍ] mf(ā)n. shaved, bald, having the head shaved or the hair shorn, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] having no horns, hornless (as a cow or goat), [Varāha-mihira]
3) [v.s. ...] stripped of top leaves or branches, lopped (as a tree), [Mahābhārata]
4) [v.s. ...] pointless, blunt, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
5) [v.s. ...] without awns or a beard (a kind of corn), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] low, mean, [Horace H. Wilson]
7) [v.s. ...] m. a man with a shaven head, bald-headed man, [Yājñavalkya i, 271] (also applied to Śiva), [Mahābhārata]
8) [v.s. ...] the trunk of a lopped tree, [Horace H. Wilson]
9) [v.s. ...] a barber, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] Name of Rāhu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) [v.s. ...] of a Daitya, [Harivaṃśa]
12) [v.s. ...] of a king, [Buddhist literature]
13) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a people, [Mahābhārata]
14) [v.s. ...] of a dynasty, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
15) Muṇḍā (मुण्डा):—[from muṇḍa > muṇḍ] f. a (close-shaved) female mendicant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
16) [v.s. ...] a widow, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]
17) [v.s. ...] a species of plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] Bengal madder, [Horace H. Wilson]
19) Muṇḍa (मुण्ड):—[from muṇḍ] n. ([cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] also n.) a shaven head, any head, [Kāvya literature; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
20) [v.s. ...] n. iron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) [v.s. ...] myrrh, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
1) adj. f. ā a) kahl geschoren, m. ein Mann mit kahl rasirtem Kopfe [Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 1, 48.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 116.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 458.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 126.] [Medinīkoṣa ḍ. 22.] [JĀBĀLOP.] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 2, 76.] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 1, 21. Vārttika von Kātyāyana. 2] zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 1, 8.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 2, 219. 8, 93.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 1, 271.] [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 936.] [Mahābhārata 1, 4598. 3, 16016.] muṇḍārdhamuṇḍān [7, 3383.] kāmbojāḥ [?4728. 4730. 13, 5865 (f.). 16, 34. Harivaṃśa 4238. Rāmāyaṇa 6, 11, 43.] bhṛgavaḥ [Gṛhyasaṃgrahapariśiṣṭa.2,52.] [Oxforder Handschriften 268,b,19.] [Suśruta.1,109,4.2,391,1.] [KĀM. NĪTIS.7,46.] [Spr. 2738.] [Scholiast] zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher.1,3,68 und 6,1,56.] zu [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 25,11,20. Śiva] [Mahābhārata 12,10366. 14,194.] Mit kṛta u. s. w. componirt gaṇa śreṇyādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 1, 59.] — b) keine Hörner habend: Kühe [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 61, 3.] Ziegen [65, 4. 11.] — c) der Spitze —, der Krone beraubt (von Bäumen): muṇḍatālavanānīva cakāra sa rathavrajān [Mahābhārata 6, 4815. 5441.] = sthāṇuvṛkṣa [Śabdakalpadruma] ohne Angabe einer Aut. — d) keine Spitze habend, stumpf: yenodayavatī (so ist zu trennen) vāde muṇḍamudgarikā jitā [Kathāsaritsāgara 72, 97.] —
2) m. n. [Amarakoṣa.3,6,4,34] (m. [Siddhāntakaumudī 249,b,1] v. u.). Kopf [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] (hier wohl mūrdhnyastrī zu lesen). [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 566.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Halāyudha 2, 363.] palitaṃ muṇḍam [Spr. 3391.] svamuṇḍahīna, kari (Gaṇeśa) [4710.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 2, 86. 3, 50. 5, 58.] muṇḍita [Prabodhacandrodaja 20, 15. 54,] [?8.Daśakumāracarita in Benfey’ Chrestomathie aus Sanskritwerken 183, 6. Lassen’s Anthologie (II) ad 4, 5.] —
3) m. a) = muṇḍaka Barbier [Jaṭādhara im Śabdakalpadruma] — b) pl. Nomen proprium einer Völkerschaft (vielleicht die Kāmboja) [Mahābhārata 6, 2410.] — c) Nomen proprium eines Fürsten [Burnouf 358.] pl. Name einer Dynastie [Viṣṇupurāṇa 474.] — d) Nomen proprium eines Daitya [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Harivaṃśa 12934.] [Oxforder Handschriften 46,b,27.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 87,1. 16. 20. fgg. 88,1.] mathanā (sic) Beiw. der Durgā [91, 19.] — e) Beiname Rāhu’s [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] —
4) f. ā (eine kahl geschorene) Bettlerin [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 532.] [Halāyudha 2, 332.] — b) eine best. Pflanze, = muṇḍīrikā [Medinīkoṣa] —
5) f. ī a) eine best. Pflanze, = mahāśrāvaṇikā [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] unter dem letzten Worte (Suppl.) — b) Nomen proprium einer der Mütter im Gefolge Skanda's [Mahābhārata 9, 2635.] —
6) n. a) Kopf s. u. 2. — b) Eisen (vgl. muṇḍaloha, muṇḍāyasa) . — c) Myrrhe [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — Vgl. uru, kamboja, gandha, caṇḍamuṇḍā, daṇḍimuṇḍa, pīta, yavana, ruru, mauṇḍya .
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Muṇḍa (मुण्ड):—vgl. nirmuṇḍa .
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1) a) kahl: śiras [Spr. (II) 4896.] — Vgl. śaśamuṇḍarasa .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) Adj. (f. ā) — a) Kahl (auch kurz) geschoren ([Gautama's Dharmaśāstra]), kahl (Kopf im Alter.) — b) keine Hörner habend (Kuh , Ziege.). — c) der Spitze — , der Krone beraubt (Baum.) — d) keine Spitze habend , stumpf. — e) ohne Grannen (Getreide) [Rājan 16,34.] —
2) m. — a) ein Mann mit kahl rasirtem Kopfe , — mit einer Glatze. — b) Barbier. — c) Beiname Rāhu's. — d) Nomen proprium — α) eines Daitya. — β) Pl. einer Völkerschaft. — γ) eines Fürsten. — δ) Pl. einer Dynastie. —
3) (m.) n. Kopf. —
4) f. ā — a) Bettlerin. — b) Wittwe [Galano's Wörterbuch] — c) eine best. Pflanze. —
5) f. ī — a) Sphaeranthus hirtus [Bhāvaprakāśa 1,214.] — b) Nomen proprium einer der Mütter im Gefolge Skanda's. —
6) n. — a) Eisen [Rājan 13,44.] — b) Myrrhe [Rājan 6.116.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+58): Munda Mundavinem, Mundabandi, Mundacanaka, Mundacchadda, Mundacem Sheta, Mundacem-sheta, Mundachanaka, Mundadhanya, Mundadharin, Mundaganesha, Mundaganga, Mundagem, Mundagutta, Mundaja, Mundaka, Mundakhandeyopanishad, Mundakhya, Mundakopanishad, Mundakopanishadaloka, Mundakopanishaddipika.
Ends with (+19): Ardhamunda, Ashukamunda, Camunda, Candamunda, Carmamunda, Chamunda, Chandamunda, Charmamunda, Chemunda, Dandimunda, Gamunda, Gandhamunda, Gaurīmunda, Gomunda, Haramunda, Kambojamunda, Kannamunda, Kharakharamunda, Khuramunda, Kumunda.
Full-text (+107): Carmamunda, Mundaphala, Mundayasa, Pitamunda, Mundasana, Camunda, Dandimunda, Mundashali, Gandhamunda, Candamunda, Mudhadhanya, Mundaka, Mundaloha, Mundaja, Mundacanaka, Mundeshvaratirtha, Maundya, Mundakhya, Shikhajata, Mahamunda.
Search found 26 books and stories containing Munda, Muṇḍa, Muṇḍā; (plurals include: Mundas, Muṇḍas, Muṇḍās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 2 - Iron variety (a): Munda (ordinary iron) < [Chapter IV - Metals (4): Lauha (iron)]
Part 18 - Iron variety (d): Mandura iron < [Chapter IV - Metals (4): Lauha (iron)]
Part 1 - Characteristics of Iron (lauha) < [Chapter IV - Metals (4): Lauha (iron)]
The Markandeya Purana (by Frederick Eden Pargiter)
List of Mahabharata tribes (by Laxman Burdak)
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 25 - On the killing of Dhūmralocana < [Book 5]
Chapter 23 - On the prowess of Kauśikī < [Book 5]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)