Munda, aka: Muṇḍa; 13 Definition(s)


Munda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Muṇḍa (मुण्ड, “pumpkin gourd”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Muṇḍavināyaka, Muṇḍagaṇeśa and Muṇḍavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.

Muṇḍa is positioned in the North-Western corner of the second circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Sadar Bazr, near Chandi Devi”. Worshippers of Muṇḍa will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “giver of devotion”. His body is in the world below and head in Kāśī, supporting Kāśī-devī. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.20062, Lon. 82.58417 (or, 25°12'02.2"N, 82°35'03.0"E) (Google maps)

Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.

Muṇḍa, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purāṇa

1) Muṇḍa (मुण्ड).—A warrior of the country of Muṇḍa. In the great battle the Muṇḍas were present in the Kaurava’s army. (Śloka 9, Chapter 56, Bhīṣma Parva).

2) Munda (मुन्द).—An asura. (See under Caṇḍamuṇḍas.

Source: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Muṇḍa (मुण्ड).—An Asura killed by the Devī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 29. 75.

1b) A tribe.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 163. 66.

1c) A Janapada of the East.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 123.

1d) Shavelings in the guise of Sanyasins in Kaliyuga.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 58. 59.

1e) A dynasty of kings; thirteen in number.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 53.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Muṇḍa (मुण्ड) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.12, I.57, III.48.21, IX.44.90, XIV.8.15, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Muṇḍa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Muṇḍa (मुण्ड) refers to a “shaven head” (bald), which is the prescribed appearance for masks for the Buddhists (śākya), monks experts in Vedic studies (śrotriya), the Jain monks (nirgrantha), wandering ascetics (parivrāj), and the dīkṣita (those who have consecrated themselves for some rites or for a Vedic sacrifice), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Providing masks is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

A king of Magadha, great grandson of Ajatasattu and son of Anuruddha. He slew his father and came to the throne, but, in turn, he was slain by his son Nagadasaka (Mhv.iv.2ff.; DA.i.153; Dvy.369).

It is probably this same king who is referred to in the Anguttara Nikaya (iii.57ff). His wife Bhadda died, and Munda gave himself up to complete despair and mummified the queens body. The kings Treasurer, Piyaka, consulted the Elder Narada who lived at Kukkutarama in Pataliputta and persuaded him to visit the king. Narada preached to him, and his sorrow vanished.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Munda in Pali glossary... « previous · [M] · next »

muṇḍa : (adj.) shaven; void of vegetation; bare.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Muṇḍa, (adj.) (cp. BSk. muṇḍa) bald, shaven; a shaven, (bald-headed) ascetic, either a samaṇa, or a bhikkhu or (f.) bhikkhunī S. I, 175 (m. saṅghāṭi-pāruta); Vin. IV, 265 (f.); Sn. p. 80 (=muṇḍita-sīsa SnA 402).—kaṇṇa° with cropped or shorn ears (appld to a dog) Pv. II, 1210, cp. muṇḍaka.

—pabbataka a bare mountain J. I, 303 (Hatthimatta); VvA. 302 (v. l. for T. muṇḍika-pabbata). —vaṭṭin “shaven hireling” (?), a king’s servant, probably porter Vin. II, 137. The expln given by Bdhgh on p. 319 (on CV. V, 29. 5) is twofold, viz. malla-kammakar’ādayo viya kacchaṃ banditvā nivāsenti; and muṇḍa-veṭṭhī (sic) ti yathā rañño kuhiñci gacchanto parikkhāra-bhaṇḍavahana-manussā ti adhippāyo. Maybe that reading veṭi is more correct. —sira shaven head DhA. II, 125. (Page 536)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

muṇḍa (मुंड).—n (muḍū Three. Telangi word.) The number three, and the stroke given, upon that number, to the viṭī in the game viṭīdāṇḍū. 2 (muṇḍa Head.) A square cloth of three or four cubits as a light turban or wrapper for the head.

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muṇḍa (मुंड).—n (S) muṇḍakī f muṇḍakēṃ n The head.

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muṇḍa (मुंड).—m n Grain (or money) in payment for a tenure of land, or for the use of cattle, or as a consideration for a money-loan.

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muṇḍa (मुंड).—a (muṇḍa S Shaven.) Wanting or exempt from interest--a money-loan.

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muṇḍā (मुंडा) [or मुंढा, muṇḍhā].—m The attendant upon a hijaḍā or hermaphrodite, when he goes his beggingrounds. As the Hindus may not suffer the hijaḍā to enter their houses, nor may even look upon his face, this muṇḍā, being a man of caste, demands and receives alms on the hijaḍā's account. Pr. hijaḍyācī jōḍa muṇḍyānēṃ khāvī. Called also kharakhara- muṇḍā & māmaramuṇḍā.

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muṇḍā (मुंडा).—m C A large waterpitcher of the kind called ḍērā. 2 Nozzle (as of a pakhāla &c.): also the mouth or head-opening (of a pakhāla).

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muṇḍā (मुंडा).—a muṇḍā m muṇḍāhāta m See muṇḍhā &c.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

muṇḍa (मुंड).—n muṇḍakī f muḍakēṃ n The head.

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muṇḍā (मुंडा).—m A water pitcher.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Muṇḍa (मुण्ड).—a. [muṇḍ-ghañ]

1) Shaved, bald; रावणश्च मया दृष्टो मुण्डस्तैलसमुक्षितः (rāvaṇaśca mayā dṛṣṭo muṇḍastailasamukṣitaḥ) Rām.5.27.19; चरन् भैक्ष्यं मुनिर्मुण्डः (caran bhaikṣyaṃ munirmuṇḍaḥ) Mb.12. 9.12.

2) Lopped, stripped of top leaves.

3) Blunt, pointless.

4) Ved. Hornless.

5) Low, mean.

-ṇḍaḥ 1 A man with a shaved or bald head; स्वप्नेऽवगाहतेऽत्यर्थं जलं मुण्डांश्च पश्यति (svapne'vagāhate'tyarthaṃ jalaṃ muṇḍāṃśca paśyati) Y.1.272.

2) A bald or shaven head.

3) The forehead.

4) A barber.

5) The trunk of a tree stripped of its top-branches; मुण्डतालवनानीव चकार स रथव्रजान् (muṇḍatālavanānīva cakāra sa rathavrajān) Mb.6.16.14.

6) An epithet of Rāhu.

7) Name of one of the twelve principal Upaniṣads; मुण्डमाण्डूक्य- तित्तिरिः (muṇḍamāṇḍūkya- tittiriḥ). -m. pl. Name of a people.

-ṇḍā 1 Name of a plant (muṇḍīrikā).

2) Bengal madder.

3) A female mendicant of a particular order.

-ṇḍam 1 The head; अङ्गं गलितं पलितं मुण्डम् (aṅgaṃ galitaṃ palitaṃ muṇḍam) Śaṅkarāchārya.

2) Myrrh.

3) Iron.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Muṇḍa (मुण्ड).—mfn.

(-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍā-ṇḍaṃ) 1. Shaved, bald, having no hair on the head. 2. Low, mean. mn.

(-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍaṃ) 1. The head. 2. The forehead. m.

(-ṇḍaḥ) 1. A bald pate. 2. A barber. 3. The name of a Daitya or Demon. 4. Rahu, the personified ascending node. 5. The trunk of a lopped tree. f.

(-ṇḍā) Bengal madder, (Rubia manjith.) E. muḍi to shave or cut, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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