Abhimukha: 23 definitions

Introduction:

Abhimukha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Abhimukh.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Abhimukha (अभिमुख) is the name of a leader of Gaṇas (Gaṇapa or Gaṇeśvara or Gaṇādhipa) who came to Kailāsa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.20. Accordingly, after Śiva decided to become the friend of Kubera:—“[...] The leaders of Gaṇas revered by the whole world and of high fortune arrived there. [...] Agnika with a hundred crores, Abhimukha with a crore, Ādityamūrdhā and Dhanāvaha each with a crore. [...]”.

These [viz., Abhimukha] and other leaders of Gaṇas [viz., Gaṇapas] were all powerful (mahābala) and innumerable (asaṃkhyāta). [...] The Gaṇa chiefs and other noble souls of spotless splendour eagerly reached there desirous of seeing Śiva. Reaching the spot they saw Śiva, bowed to and eulogised him.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Abhimukha (अभिमुख) refers to the “front” (of the entrance), according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 224-228).—Accordingly, “[Then he notices the dvārapāla (guardian of the gate), about which it is said that] [Caṇḍikā] had protected her entrance with an iron buffalo installed in front (abhimukha-pratiṣṭha), which, because of the fact that it had been marked by palms [dyed with] red-sandalwood, seemed to have been stamped by Yama’s hand-prints red with blood, the red eyes of which were being licked by jackals greedy for drops of blood”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Abhimukha (अभिमुख) refers to “facing towards” (heaven and earth), according to the Mataṅgapārameśvaratantra (Mataṅgapārameśvara’s Yogapāda) verse 2.23-27.—Accordingly, while discussing ancillary and seated poses in Yoga: “[...] His head should always be upright. His gaze is towards (abhimukha) heaven and earth, and its support is the tip of the nose. His eyes are slightly closed and he does not touch the teeth [of the upper jaw] with those [of the lower, nor] with the tip of his tongue which is located on the middle of the palate. O great sage, [this] Karaṇa has been explained fully and at length in regard to the path of Yoga”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Abhimukha (अभिमुख) refers to “facing” (e.g., southward), according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Benevolence, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity. Oṃ the natural state of all conditions is pure... First crossing onto a cremation ground, fixed high on a mountain, A yogi having all the sacred threads, loose hair, and facing southward (dakṣiṇa-abhimukha), The five ambrosias and lamps, interpolated into the face”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Mahayana glossary
Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Abhimukha (अभिमुख) refers to “facing (a particular direction)” (e.g., the clouds), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [as the Bhagavān teaches the offering of the root spell], “[...] Having enchanted ash-water twenty-one times, and having sprinkled it [on himself], self-protection will be established. Having enchanted mustard seeds 108 times, and enchanted drinking water seven times at the time of the rumbling of clouds, one should throw mustard seeds towards the sky. Cloud-binding should be given in the sky. Facing the clouds (megha-abhimukha) all seized flowers and fruits fall onto the ground. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Jainism glossary
Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Abhimukha (अभिमुख) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Abhimukha] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

abhimukha : (adj.) facing; present; face to face with. (m.), the front.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Abhimukha, (adj.) (abhi + mukha) facing, turned towards, approaching J.II, 3 (°ā ahesuṃ met each other). Usually —° turned to, going to, inclined towards D.I, 50 (purattha°); J.I, 203 (devaloka°), 223 (varaṇa-rukkha°); II, 3 (nagara°), 416 (Jetavana°); DhA.I, 170 (tad°); II, 89 (nagara°); PvA.3 (kāma°, opp. vimukha), 74 (uyyāna°). — nt. °ṃ adv. to, towards J.I, 263 (matta-vāraṇe); PvA.4 (āghātana°, may here be taken as pred. adj.); DhA.III, 310 (uttara°). (Page 68)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

abhimukha (अभिमुख).—a S Fronting, facing, having the face towards. 2 fig. Intent or bent upon; engaged in contemplation or consideration of. 3 fig. Propitious, favorable, disposed kindly or advantageously towards--destiny, the times, circumstances. Ex. of comp. uttarābhimukha, dakṣiṇābhimukha, pūrvārvābhimukha, paścimābhimukha, sūryābhimukha, samudrābhimukha, yajñābhimukha, adhyayanābhimukha.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

abhimukha (अभिमुख).—a Fronting, facing towards, turned towards. Intent or bent upon; engaged in contemplation of. Propi- tious, favourable.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Abhimukha (अभिमुख).—a. (-khī f.) [अभिगतं मुखं यस्य अभेर्मुखम् (abhigataṃ mukhaṃ yasya abhermukham) P.VI.2. 185]

1) With the face turned or directed towards, in the direction of, towards, turned towards, facing; अभिमुखे मयि संहृतमीक्षितम् (abhimukhe mayi saṃhṛtamīkṣitam) Ś.2.12. °खा शाला (khā śālā) Sk.; गच्छन्नभिमुखो वह्नौ नाशं याति पतङ्गवत् (gacchannabhimukho vahnau nāśaṃ yāti pataṅgavat) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.237; with the acc.; राजानमेवाभि- मुखा निषेदुः (rājānamevābhi- mukhā niṣeduḥ); पम्पामभिमुखो ययौ (pampāmabhimukho yayau) Rām.; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 11.28; K.264; sometimes with dat., or gen. or loc.; आश्रमायाभिमुखा बभूवुः (āśramāyābhimukhā babhūvuḥ) Mb.; यस्ते तिष्ठेदभिमुखे रणे (yaste tiṣṭhedabhimukhe raṇe) Rām.; मथ्यभिमुखीभूय (mathyabhimukhībhūya) Dk. 124; also in comp. शकुन्तलाभिमुखो भूत्वा (śakuntalābhimukho bhūtvā) Ś.

1) turning towards Ś.; Kumārasambhava 3.75,7.9.

2) Coming or going near, approaching, near or close at hand; अभिमुखीष्विव वाञ्छित- सुद्धिषु व्रजति निर्वृतिमेकपदे मनः (abhimukhīṣviva vāñchita- suddhiṣu vrajati nirvṛtimekapade manaḥ) V.2.9.; यौवनाभिमुखी संजज्ञे (yauvanābhimukhī saṃjajñe) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4; R.17.4.

3) Disposed or intending to, inclined to; ready for, about (to do something), in comp.; चन्द्रापीडाभिमुखहृदया (candrāpīḍābhimukhahṛdayā) K.198,233; अस्ताभिमुखे सूर्ये (astābhimukhe sūrye) Mu.4.19; प्रसादाभिमुखो वेधाः प्रत्युवाच दिवौकसः (prasādābhimukho vedhāḥ pratyuvāca divaukasaḥ) Kumārasambhava 2.16;5.6; Uttararāmacarita 7.4, Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1.13; कर्मण्यभिमुखेन स्थेयम् (karmaṇyabhimukhena stheyam) Daśakumāracarita 89; अनभिमुखः सुखानाभ् (anabhimukhaḥ sukhānābh) K.45; प्रातः प्रयाणाभिमुखाय तस्मै (prātaḥ prayāṇābhimukhāya tasmai) R.5.29; निद्रा चिरेण नयना- भिमुखी वभूव (nidrā cireṇa nayanā- bhimukhī vabhūva) 5.64; sometimes as first member of comp. in this sense; फलमभिमुखपाकं राजजम्बूद्रुमस्य (phalamabhimukhapākaṃ rājajambūdrumasya); V.4.27.

4) Favourable, friendly or favourably disposed; आनीय झटिति घटयति विधिरभिमतमभिमुखीभूतः (ānīya jhaṭiti ghaṭayati vidhirabhimatamabhimukhībhūtaḥ) Ratnāvalī 1.5.

5) Taking one's part, nearly related to.

6) With the face turned upwards.

-khaḥ Forepart (agra); तस्येषुपाताभिमुखं (tasyeṣupātābhimukhaṃ) (visṛjya) Bhāgavata 9.6.18.

-khī One of the 1 earths according to Buddhists.

-kham, -khe ind. Towards, in the direction of, facing, in front or presence of, near to; with acc., gen. or in comp. or by itself; स दीप्त इव कालाग्निर्जज्वालाभिमुखं खगम् (sa dīpta iva kālāgnirjajvālābhimukhaṃ khagam) Rām.5.67.12. आसीताभिमुखं गुरोः (āsītābhimukhaṃ guroḥ) Manusmṛti 2.193; तिष्ठन्मुनेरभिमुखं स विकीर्णधाम्नः (tiṣṭhanmunerabhimukhaṃ sa vikīrṇadhāmnaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 2.59; Śiśupālavadha 13.2; Kirātārjunīya 6. 46; नेपथ्याभिमुखमवलोक्य (nepathyābhimukhamavalokya) Ś.1; स पुराभिमुखं प्रतस्थे (sa purābhimukhaṃ pratasthe) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 3; Me. 7; कर्णं ददात्यभिमुखं मयि भाषमाणे (karṇaṃ dadātyabhimukhaṃ mayi bhāṣamāṇe) Ś.1.3; also at the beginning of comp.; अभिमुखनिहतस्य (abhimukhanihatasya) Bhartṛhari 2.112 killed in the front ranks of battle.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhimukha (अभिमुख).—mfn.

(-khaḥ-khā-khī-khaṃ) 1. Present. 2. Near to, in front of. n. adv.

(-khaṃ) In front or presence of. E. abhi before, and mukha the face.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhimukha (अभिमुख).—[abhi-mukha], adj., f. khā or khī. 1. Facing, fronting, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 71, 18: with acc. Directed towards. [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 1, 34; towards, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 11, 28; opposite, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 71, 9. 2. Near, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 28. 3. Ready for, Ragh, 5, 29. 4. Favourable, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 109, 23. Acc. kham, adv. Opposite to, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 193; towards, [Pañcatantra] 40, 17; to, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 45, 48; near, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 69. Loc. khe, adv. Opposite, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 19, 25.

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Abhimukha (अभिमुख).—see s. v. Ayomº, i. e.

Abhimukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms abhi and mukha (मुख).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhimukha (अभिमुख).—[feminine] ī (ā) having the face towards, facing, turned to ([accusative], [dative], [genetive], or —°); propitious, favourable to ([genetive] or [instrumental]); approaching, near; occupied in, going to (—°). [neuter] [adverb] in front, towards, against, over against ([accusative], [genetive] or —°); khe against, opposite ([genetive] or —°). khī bhū turn towards, be favourable.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Abhimukha (अभिमुख):—[=abhi-mukha] mf(ī, rarely ā)n. with the face directed towards, turned towards, facing (with [accusative] [dative case] [genitive case]; or ifc.)

2) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) going near, approaching (as yauvanābhimukhī, ‘approaching puberty, marriageable’ [Pañcatantra])

3) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) disposed to, intending to, ready for

4) [v.s. ...] taking one’s part, friendly disposed (with [genitive case] or [instrumental case]), [Rāmāyaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhimukha (अभिमुख):—I. [bahuvrihi compound] or [tatpurusha compound] 1. m. f. n.

(-khaḥ-khā or -khī; see N. B.; -kham) 1) With the face directed towards, facing, fronting; e. g. Nalop.: śārdūlobhimukhobhyeti; or in the locat. used adverbially, Rāmāy.: kṛtāñjaliruvācedaṃ śvaśrūmabhimukhe sthitām.

2) Near, approaching; e. g. Raghuv.: yuyoja pākābhimukhairbhṛtyānvijñāpanāphalaiḥ; comp. also abhimukhīkaraṇa, abhimukhībhūta.

3) Disposed towards, engaged in, ready for; e. g. Raghuv.: prātaḥ prayāṇābhimukhāya…tasmai vṛṣṭiṃ śaśaṃsuḥ; or svasāramādāya vidarbharājaḥ purapraveśābhimukho babhūva.

4) Kindly disposed, favourable, propitious; e. g. Rāmāy.: na nāstikenābhimukho budhaḥ syāt; or Lalitav.: ye (scil. bodhisattvāḥ) tuṣitavarabhavanasthāḥ sarve caramabhavābhimukhāḥ &c.

5) With the face upwards; e. g. Suśruta: ābhugnī bhimukhaḥ śete garbhī garbhāśaye striyāḥ . sa yoniṃ śirasā yāti svabhāvātprasavaṃ prati; comp. also the comm. of the Nalodaya on the word anavāk, viz.: avāk . adhomukhaḥ . na avāk . anavāk . abhimukhaḥ. [N. B. According to a Kārikā on Pāṇ. Iv. 1. 54. the fem. of this word must end in ī (ṅīṣ), if it is applied to a living being, otherwise in ā; thus e. g. Rāmāy.: rājānamevābhimukhī kaikeyī vākyamabravīt; or prayātu caturaṅgiṇī . ayodhyābhimukhī senā; or Śaṅk. on Chh. Upan. 4. 6. 1.: tāḥ śanaiścarantya ācāryakulābhimukhyaḥ prasthitāḥ; but Kāśikā: abhimukhā śālā; comp. e. g. candramukhī and similar compounds (said of a woman) but ślakṣṇamukhā śālā.] 2. f.

(-khī) One of ten earths stepped upon by Buddha, in Buddhistic mythology; (in the classical Saṃskṛt this fem. in ī instead of in ā would be doubly wrong; comp. the foregoing remark and Pāṇ. Iv. 1. 58.). Ii. Avyayībh.

(-kham) 1) With the face towards, in the direction towards; e. g. Manu: āsyatāmiti coktaḥ sannāsītābhimukhaṃ guroḥ; or Kirātārj.: vyaktoditasmitamayūkhavibhāsitoṣṭhastiṣṭhanmunerabhimukhaṃ sa vikīrṇadhāmnaḥ; or Ṛtusaṃh.: cūtavṛkṣān . abhimukhamabhivīkṣya; or in the dramas: nepathyābhimukhamavalokya.

2) Near; e. g. Hitop.: svagṛhābhimukhaṃ prayātaḥ; or Śiśupālab.: abhimukhapatitairguṇaprakarṣādavarjitam &c.; or Meghad.: arcistuṅgānabhimukhagatānprāṣya ratnapradīpān. [abhimukha is udātta on the last syllable; this accent follows for the Avyayībh. from Pāṇ. Vi. 1. 223., for the [tatpurusha compound] from Vi. 2. 185., and for the [bahuvrihi compound] from the same Sūtra, since the rule Vi. 2. 177. (exception to Vi. 2. 168.) concerns only such [bahuvrihi compound] ending in mukha, as express a permanent condition of the face (comp. pramukha), not a transitory one like ‘facing’, and applies moreover only to the literal meaning of mukha, not to the figur. sense it has e. g. in abhimukhā as epithet of śālā; (but Vi. 2. 177. applies probably also to abhimukha I. 1. 5.); Kāśikā: bahuvrīhirayam . prādisamāso vā . avyayībhāve tu samāsāntodāttatvenaiva siddham . upasargātsvāṅgamiti siddhe vacanamabahuvrīhyartham . adhruvārtham . asvāṅgārthaṃ ca; comp. the quotation from Patanj. s. v. apamukha.] E. abhi and mukha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Abhimukha (अभिमुख):—[abhi-mukha] (khaḥ-khā-khaṃ) a. Present, near.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Abhimukha (अभिमुख) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Abhimuha, Ahimuha, Āhutta.

[Sanskrit to German]

Abhimukha in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Abhimukha (अभिमुख) [Also spelled abhimukh]:—(ind) directed towards, facing; disposed to, intending to.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Abhimukha (ಅಭಿಮುಖ):—

1) [adjective] with the faced turned or directed towards, in the direction of; facing.

2) [adjective] favourable; conducive.

3) [adjective] oriented to set ( a map or a chart) in agreement with the points of the compass.

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Abhimukha (ಅಭಿಮುಖ):—

1) [noun] that part which is just in front.

2) [noun] the state of being placed, situated, in front of one’s face.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

[«previous next»] — Abhimukha in Nepali glossary
Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Abhimukha (अभिमुख):—adj. turned towards; facing; adv. 1. in front of; 2. in the presence of; 3. towards;

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Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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