Adhomukha, Adhomukhā, Adhas-mukha: 25 definitions

Introduction:

Adhomukha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Adhomukh.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Adhomukha (अधोमुख) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) , or “movements made with the arms (bāhu)”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 9. These movements form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

1) One of the Nine Movements of the Head. Adhomukha (face inclined): the head is bent. Usage: modesty, sorrow, bowing, regarding anything vile, fainting, things on the ground, bathing.

2) One of the Twenty-four Heads. Adhomukha: the head is bent. Usage: modesty, sorrow, bowing.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Adhomukha (अधोमुख) refers to “(performing penance in a) topsy-turvy position”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “Then the demon Tāraka, of great strength and exploit, endowed with a lofty mind, requested permission of his mother for performing penance. [...] A hundred years he performed the penance amidst fires, a hundred years in a topsy-turvy position [i.e., adhomukha] and a hundred years supported on the ground by the palms of his hands. O sage, a hundred years he remained with his head down and feet up clinging fast to the branch of a tree and inhaling the pure smoke of the sacrificial fire. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Adhomukha (अधोमुख).—See adhaśśiras.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 163.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Adhomukha (अधोमुख) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.94) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Adhomukha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Ayurveda glossary
Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Adhomukhā (अधोमुखा) is another name for Gojihvā, a medicinal plant identified with Onosma bracteatum Wall. (“true indigo”) from the Boraginaceae or “borage” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.86-87 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Adhomukhā and Gojihvā, there are a total of seven Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Yoga glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)

Adhomukha (अधोमुख) refers to “facing downwards”, according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—Accordingly, “The moon is on the peak of Meru and has sixteen digits. Facing downwards (adhomukha), it rains dewy nectar day and night”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Adhomukha (अधोमुख) refers to “facing downwards”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, [while describing the Eight Kulas]—“[...] 5) The Lotus (i.e. Yoni) of Kula (at the End of the Twelve above the deity's head) faces downwards (adhomukha). 6) One should know that Kula is Śakti. 7) It is said here that Kula is knowledge. 8) Kula is the instrument (of emanation and attainment). [...]

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Mahayana glossary
Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Adhomukha (अधोमुख) refers to “facing downwards”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [after Agastya uttered the dhāraṇī]: “Immediately after this spell had been uttered in front of the Bhagavān by Agastya, the Great Ṛṣi, then all the hostile Nāgas, Yakṣas and Rākṣasas fell with their face downwards (adhomukha). They called the Bhagavān for help in a loud voice, ‘O Bhagavān, we are destroyed, we are cursed by the curse of the Ṛṣi [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Biology (plants and animals)

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Biology glossary
Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Adhomukha in India is the name of a plant defined with Elephantopus mollis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Asterocephalus cochinchinensis Spreng. (among others).

2) Adhomukha is also identified with Trichodesma indicum It has the synonym Borago indica L. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (1820)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1989)
· Primitiae Florae Essequeboensis (1818)
· Plantae e Familiae Asperifoliarum Nuciferae (1818)
· Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae (1810)
· Trichodesma (1817)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Adhomukha, for example pregnancy safety, chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, side effects, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

adhomukha : (adj.) bent over; with face cast down; turned upside down.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Adhomukha refers to: head forward, face downward, bent over, upturned Vin.II, 78; M.I, 132, 234: Vv 161 (= heṭṭhā mukha VvA.78).

Note: adhomukha is a Pali compound consisting of the words adho and mukha.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

adhōmukha (अधोमुख).—a (S) adhōvadana a (S adhaḥ Down, & mukha & vadana Face.) With the face downwards. 2 fig. Dejected, downcast: also abashed, disconcerted, crest-fallen &c. Ex. paramalajjita adhōvadana || laṅkēsi ālā rāvaṇa ||

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

adhōmukha (अधोमुख) [-vadana, -वदन].—a With the face downwards, dejected, downcast.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Adhomukha (अधोमुख).—a. having the face downwards; °खी तिष्ठति (khī tiṣṭhati); °खैः पत्रिभिः (khaiḥ patribhiḥ) R.3.37.

2) head-long, precipitate, flying downwards.

3) upside down, topsyturvy.

-khaḥ Name of Viṣṇu.

-khā, -khī Name of a plant गोजिह्वा (gojihvā).

-kham (nakṣatram)

Adhomukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms adhas and mukha (मुख). See also (synonyms): adhovadana.

--- OR ---

Adhomukha (अधोमुख).—(n.) Name of a hell.

Adhomukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms adhas and mukha (मुख).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhomukha (अधोमुख).—mfn.

(-kha-khā-khī-khaṃ) 1. Down-looked, looking downwards. 2. Inverted, turned upside down. 3. Headlong. f.

(-khā) A plant, (Premna esculenta.) E. adhas, and mukha the face.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhomukha (अधोमुख).—adj., f. khī. 1. looking downwards, [Pañcatantra] 84, 7. 2. turned downwards, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 26, 20.

Adhomukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms adhas and mukha (मुख).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhomukha (अधोमुख).—[feminine] ī looking or turned (lit. h. the face turned) downwards.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Adhomukha (अधोमुख):—[=adho-mukha] [from adhas] mf(ā [Śiśupāla-vadha] or ī)n. having the face downwards

2) [v.s. ...] headlong

3) [v.s. ...] upside down

4) [v.s. ...] m. Viṣṇu

5) [v.s. ...] a division of hell, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

6) Adhomukhā (अधोमुखा):—[=adho-mukhā] [from adho-mukha > adhas] f. the plant Premna Esculenta.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhomukha (अधोमुख):—[bahuvrihi compound] I. m. f. n.

(-khaḥ-khā or khī-kham) 1) Downlooked, looking downwards.

2) Inverted, turned upside down, headlong. Ii. m.

(-khaḥ) A name of Viṣṇu. Iii. f.

(-khā) A plant (Premna esculenta). See gojihvā. Iv. n.

(-kham) A division of Naraka or hell. See adhaḥśiras. E. adhas and mukha; in the fem. with aff. ṭāp or ṅīṣ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhomukha (अधोमुख):—[adho+mukha] (khaḥ-khā-khī-khaṃ) a. Downlooked, downcast. f. A plant.

[Sanskrit to German]

Adhomukha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Adhomukha (अधोमुख) [Also spelled adhomukh]:—(a) face downwards.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Adhomukha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Adhōmukha (ಅಧೋಮುಖ):—

1) [noun] a down cast face, as from shame.

2) [noun] the position of having the face downwards.

3) [noun] (dance) a hanging down of the head to express shame, shyness, modesty, sorrow, obeisance, etc.

4) [noun] a man walking with face bent down.

5) [noun] the state of being upside down.

6) [noun] Viṣṇu.

7) [noun] a division in the Hell.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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