Muka, Mūka, Mūka: 25 definitions

Introduction:

Muka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Mook.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Mūka (मूक).—A serpent born of the family of Takṣaka. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Śloka 9, Chapter 5, Ādi Parva).

2) Mūka (मूक).—An asura. This demon once went to Arjuna who was engaged in penance in the forests. He had assumed the form of a boar and Arjuna killed him. At once Śiva appeared there in the guise of a forester and contended that the boar was killed by him. A quarrel ensued which ended in a fight between them. In the end Śiva appeared before Arjuna in his real form and granted him the missile Pāśupata. (See under Arjuna).

3) Mūka (मूक).—A Caṇḍāla devoted much to his parents. A Brāhmaṇa named Narottama went to this caṇḍāla to learn moral lessons from him. (Sṛṣṭikhaṇḍa, Padma Purāṇa).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mūka (मूक) refers to an “dumb person”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.32 (“The seven celestial sages arrive”).—Accordingly, as the Seven Sages said to Śiva: “[...] O Sadāśiva, we have become the most excellent of all people by your remembering us. Usually you never even come across the path of ambitions and aspirations of ordinary people. O lord, your vision, very difficult to be acquired, is like the fruit stooping down within the reach of the dwarf, like sight to a man born blind, like eloquency acquired by a dumb man (mūka), like the indigent meeting with a treasure-trove, like the lame man reaching the top of a high mountain and like the barren woman bearing a child. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Mūka (मूक).—A son of Hrāda killed by Savysāci (Arjuna) in Kairāta.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 34, 36; Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 72, 73.

1b) A tribe of the Madhyadeśa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 36.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Mūka (मूक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.8, I.57) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mūka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Mūka (मूक) or Mūkatva refers to “being foolish”, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “If the teachers who are in the world have little knowledge how can (authentic spiritual) knowledge be protected (from corruption)? (Indeed, such teachers) steal knowledge away. If a disciple disrespects (his) teacher (thinking to himself) ‘I have acquired the essence of (his) knowledge, (it is time to) leave’ (and does so) without saying (that he is leaving), the goddesses will block (his development) and make (him) more foolish (mūka-tva). [...]”.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)

Mūka (मूक) or Mūkatantra refers to one of the twenty-three Vāmatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Mūka-tantra belonging to the Vāma class.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Mūka (मूक) refers to “one who is dumb”, according to the Dattātreyayogaśāstra verse 101.4 and Yogatattvopaniṣat 1.76-78.—Accordingly, while discussing the concerns about the use of Siddhis: “These [Siddhis] are obstacles to the great Siddhi (i.e., liberation). The wise [Yogin] does not delight in them. He should never reveal his own power to anyone, except sometimes he may do so to a devotee out of kindness. The Yogin should behave among people as though dumb (mūka), simple or deaf, in order to keep his powers hidden. If not, then there will surely be many students [who will] undoubtedly ask the master of Yoga [to intervene] in their own affairs. [Because of this,] he will become preoccupied with carrying out their actions and forgetful of his own [Yoga] practice”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Mūka (मूक) refers to a “silent” (Hawk), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the yellow-eyed division of hawks]: “Vāsā becomes admired, if its voice is pleasing. The Vājā is good, if it is silent (mūka). Kuhī is good, if its throat and the ‘ends of its ears’ are silvery”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Manblunder: Hinduism

mūka means dumb

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Mūka (मूक, “mute”).—According to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV), “then, amongst the beings of the trisāhasramahāsāhasralokadāthu, the mute (mūka) began to speak”. What sins (āpatti) have they committed in order to be mute? Answer. – They have cut out someone’s tongue or choked someone; they have made someone unable to speak by means of an evil herb; hearing the instructions of their teacher (ācārya) or the orders of their father, they have cut off their speech and not followed their advice; acting in bad ways, they did not believe in sin or merit and opposed correct speech (samyagvāc). Condemned to hell, when they are reborn in human form, they are mute, unable to speak. Those are the various causes that make someone mute (mūka).

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Mūkā (मूका) is the birth-place of Marīci: the name of a Cakrin and later incarnation of Marīci, according to chapter 1.6 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “[...] Marīci will attain enlightenment gradually from contact with the fire of pure meditation, like a cloth pure from fire, like pure gold. In this same Bharatakṣetra in the city Potana he will be the first Dāśārha (Vāsudeva), Tripṛṣṭha by name. In course of time, in the East Videhas in the city Mūkā, he will become a Cakrin, Priyamitra, the son of Dhanañjaya and Dhāriṇī. After he has wandered in existence for a long time, he will become the twenty-fourth Tīrthakṛt, Mahāvīra, in Bharatakṣetra”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mukā (मुका).—a Dumb. 2 Mute or silent. 3 fig. Wanting a head, blind--a guineaworm, a boil, tumor, pustule: not having its kernel yet formed or its milk so abundant as to flop and sound within--a cocoanut: that do not readily germinate on being steeped--particular pulses &c.; or that remains hard or unpuffed by steeping--a grain: unexpanded--a bud, sprout, leaf: working without noise--sugarmills, waterwheels &c.

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mukā (मुका).—m A kiss. v ghē g. of o.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mukā (मुका).—m A kiss. a Dumb; mute, silent.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Muka (मुक).—The smell of cow-dung.

Derivable forms: mukaḥ (मुकः).

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Mūka (मूक).—a. [mū-kak]

1) Dumb, silent, mute, speechless; मूकं करोति वाचालम् (mūkaṃ karoti vācālam); मूकाण्डजम् (mūkāṇḍajam) (kānanam) Kumārasambhava 3.42; सखीमियं वीक्ष्य विषादमूकाम् (sakhīmiyaṃ vīkṣya viṣādamūkām) Gītagovinda 7; मूकीभूतघण्टास्वरास्वन्तःपुरदोलासु (mūkībhūtaghaṇṭāsvarāsvantaḥpuradolāsu) K.9; मूकीभूतवीणा (mūkībhūtavīṇā) K.132.

2) Poor, miserable, wretched.

-kaḥ 1 A mute; मौनान्मूकः (maunānmūkaḥ) H.2.26. v. l.; Manusmṛti 7.149.

2) A poor or miserable man.

3) A fish.

4) The offspring of a mule and a mare.

-kā A crucible; see मूषा (mūṣā)

Derivable forms: mūkam (मूकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūka (मूक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) 1. Dumb. 2. Poor, wretched. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A fish. 2. A demon. 3. A pauper. E. imitative sound, and kai to utter, aff. ka; or to bind, kak aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūka (मूक).—I. adj. Dumb, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 71. Ii. m. 1. A fish. 2. A poor man. 3. A Daitya.

— Cf. [Latin] mūtus.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūka (मूक).—(mūka) [adjective] dumb, silent; [abstract] † [feminine], tva† [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Muka (मुक):—m. the smell of cow-dung

2) mf(ā)n. having the smell of cow-dung, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Mukā (मुका):—f. Name of a town, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

4) Mūka (मूक):—[from ] mf(ā)n. ([Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] mūka) ‘tied or bound’ ([scilicet] tongue-tied), dumb, speechless, mute, silent, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

5) [v.s. ...] wretched, poor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] m. a fish, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] the offspring of a mule and mare, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of a Dānava, [Mahābhārata]

9) [v.s. ...] of a serpent-demon, [ib.]

10) [v.s. ...] of a poet, [Catalogue(s)]

11) Mūkā (मूका):—[from mūka > mū] f. a crucible, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (= or [wrong reading] for mūṣā).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mukā (मुका):—(kā) 1. f. Dregs.

2) Mūka (मूक):—[(kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) a.] Dumb. m. A fish. a demon; a pauper.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mūka (मूक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Mukka, Maala, Mūalla.

[Sanskrit to German]

Muka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mūka (मूक) [Also spelled mook]:—(a) dumb; mute, speechless; —[abhinaya] pantomime; ~[] aphonia, dumbness; muteness, speechlessness; —[samarthana] silent backing; —[svīkṛti] tacit approval.

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Muka (ಮುಕ):—

1) [noun] (correctly ಮುಖ [mukha]) the front part of the head, from the forehead to the chin; the face.

2) [noun] the mouth.

3) [noun] the point toward which something faces; direction.

4) [noun] the place or position directly before a person or thing; front.

5) [noun] confidence in oneself, one’s own abilities, etc.; self-confidence.

6) [noun] the act or an instance of beginning; commencement.

7) [noun] the front portion of anything.

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Mūka (ಮೂಕ):—

1) [adjective] lacking the power of speech; mute.

2) [adjective] unwilling to talk; silent.

3) [adjective] not accompanied by speech.

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Mūka (ಮೂಕ):—

1) [noun] a dumb man.

2) [noun] a fish.

3) [noun] the offspring of a horse and an ass; a zebra.

4) [noun] (myth.) name of a demon.

5) [noun] a very poor man.

6) [noun] ಮೂಕ ಕಂಡ ಕನಸು [muka kamda kanasu] mūka kaṇḍa kanasu an experience, revelation that cannot be expressed in words; ಮೂಕನೆದುರು ಮೂಗು ತುರಿಸಬೇಡ [mukaneduru mugu turisabeda] mūkaneduru mūgu turisabēḍa halt not before a cripple, lest he would thing that he is insulted.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Muka (முக) [mukattal] 12 transitive verb [K. moge.]

1. To draw, as water; to bale; மொள்ளுதல். கனையிருள் வானங் கடன்முகத்து [molluthal. kanaiyirul vanang kadanmugathu] (கலித்தொகை [kalithogai] 145).

2. To measure, as grain or liquid; நெல் நீர் முதலியன அளத்தல். முகத்தலளவை. [nel nir muthaliyana alathal. mugathalalavai.]

3. To obtain in full measure; நிரம்பப்பெறுதல். முகந் தனர் திருவருள் [nirambapperuthal. mugan thanar thiruvarul] (கம்பராமாயணம் எழுச்சி. [kambaramayanam ezhuchi.] 2).

4. To lift, take up; தாங்கியெடுத்தல். முகந்துயிர் மூழ்கப்புல்லி [thangiyeduthal. muganthuyir muzhkappulli] (கம்பராமாயணம் கும்பகர்ண. [kambaramayanam kumbagarna.] 129).

5. cf. உக-. [uga-.] To desire, like; விரும்புதல். மூர்க்கரை மூர்க்கர் முகப்பர் [virumbuthal. murkkarai murkkar mugappar] (நல் வழி [nal vazhi], 24).

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Muka (முக) [mukattal] 12 transitive verb < மோ-. [mo-.] To smell; மூக்கால் நுகருதல். [mukkal nugaruthal.] Colloq.

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Mūkā (மூகா) [mūkāttal] 11 intransitive verb < மூகம் [mugam] + ஆ⁷-. [a⁷-.] To be mute or silent; மௌனமாயிருத்தல். (யாழ்ப்பாணத்து மானிப்பாயகராதி) [maunamayiruthal. (yazhppanathu manippayagarathi)]

context information

Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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