Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 10.90.12

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ब्रा॒ह्म॒णो॑ऽस्य॒ मुख॑मासीद्बा॒हू रा॑ज॒न्य॑: कृ॒तः । ऊ॒रू तद॑स्य॒ यद्वैश्य॑: प॒द्भ्यां शू॒द्रो अ॑जायत ॥
ब्राह्मणोऽस्य मुखमासीद्बाहू राजन्यः कृतः । ऊरू तदस्य यद्वैश्यः पद्भ्यां शूद्रो अजायत ॥
brāhmaṇo 'sya mukham āsīd bāhū rājanyaḥ kṛtaḥ | ūrū tad asya yad vaiśyaḥ padbhyāṃ śūdro ajāyata ||

English translation:

“His mouth became the Brāhmaṇa, his arms became the Rājanya, his thighs became the Vaiśya;the Śūdra was born from his feet.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The Brāhmaṇa was his mouth; the Rājanya was made his arms; thatwhich was the Vaiśya was his thighs; the S'Ūdra sprang from his feet: Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. 1, p.9



Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ब्रा॒ह्म॒णः॑ । अ॒स्य॒ । मुख॑म् । आ॒सी॒त् बा॒हू इति॑ । रा॒ज॒न्यः॑ । कृ॒तः । ऊ॒रू इति॑ । तत् । अ॒स्य॒ । यत् । वैश्यः॑ । प॒त्ऽभ्याम् । शू॒द्रः । अ॒जा॒य॒त॒ ॥
ब्राह्मणः । अस्य । मुखम् । आसीत् बाहू इति । राजन्यः । कृतः । ऊरू इति । तत् । अस्य । यत् । वैश्यः । पत्भ्याम् । शूद्रः । अजायत ॥
brāhmaṇaḥ | asya | mukham | āsīt bāhū iti | rājanyaḥ | kṛtaḥ | ūrū iti | tat | asya | yat | vaiśyaḥ | pat-bhyām | śūdraḥ | ajāyata

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.90.12 English analysis of grammar]

brāhmaṇo < brāhmaṇaḥ < brāhmaṇa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Brahmin; Brahmin; brāhmaṇa [word]; Brahma.”

'sya < asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

mukham < mukha

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“mouth; mouth; mukha; face; aperture; tip; beginning; etc.; mukha; battlefront; teaching; head; orifice; mukha [word]; beginning; mouth; expression; direction; information; surface; best; head; quarter; first; end.”

āsīd < āsīt < as

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

bāhū < bāhuḥ < bāhu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“arm; bāhu [word]; elbow; forefoot.”

rājanyaḥ < rājanya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Kshatriya; rājanya [word].”

kṛtaḥ < kṛ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

ūrū < ūru

[noun], nominative, dual, masculine

“thigh; ūru [word]; ūru; shank.”

tad < tat < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

yad < yat < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

vaiśyaḥ < vaiśya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Vaisya; Vaisya.”

padbhyāṃ < padbhyām < pad

[noun], ablative, dual, masculine

“foot; pad [word].”

śūdro < śūdraḥ < śūdra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Shudra; Shudra.”

ajāyata < jan

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“become; originate; be born; transform; happen; result; grow; beget; produce; create; conceive; separate; cause; give birth; grow; produce; generate; be; become; arise; come on.”

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