Shatru, Śatru: 20 definitions


Shatru means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śatru can be transliterated into English as Satru or Shatru, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Śatru (शत्रु) refers to the “foe”, as in, a hostile sovereign. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Śatru (शत्रु) refers to an “enemy”, and is mentioned in verse 2.27 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “One shall not proclaim somebody (to be) one’s enemy [viz., Śatru] nor oneself (to be) somebody’s foe nor contempt nor (one’s) master’s ungraciousness”.

Note: Śatru (“enemy”) and Ripu (“foe”) have both been rendered by dgra (“enemy”), without regard to the stylistic variation in the original Sanskrit.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Śatru (शत्रु) refers to an “enemy”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “One should institute a great sacrifice at times of great fear, when in conflict with a powerful enemy [i.e., balavat-śatru-vigraha], when the land is afflicted with drought, when locusts and soldiers come (to ravage it), when (one seeks to) remedy disease and suffering, when there is a fight between relatives for kingdom, when the king is deposed, during solitary combat in a great battle, in order to (get a) son, when one fails to gets a young virgin (bride), during a marriage, in order to gain victory, (or) when a fort is under attack. [...]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Śatru (शत्रु) refers to one’s “enemy”, according to Sāhib Kaul’s Śārikāstrotra.—Accordingly, “[...] He who recites your next syllable, which is īśa with abja and the one above the left ear, his enemy (śatru), although invincible even for all the gods, will instantly, in the wink of an eye, become a guest in the house of Death. He who remembers your next syllable, which is īśa together with vaktravṛtta and vahni, will have at his disposal ‘enjoyment’ (bhukti), liberation, the method of real vicāra, and devotion. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Śatru (शत्रु) refers to “enemies”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “[...] [The demons born of] the aggressive magic of [his] enemies, having failed to take hold of him, frightened will possess the performer [of the ritual], like a river[’s fury] blocked by a mountain. Droughts will end and enemies (śatru) will run away. In his kingdom there will not be dangers in the form of untimely deaths, wild animals, beasts of prey, thieves, illnesses etc. and strength shall reside in his lineage”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śatru (शत्रु) refers to “enemies”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.35 (“The story of Padmā and Pippalāda”).—Accordingly, Dharma (in the guise of a king) said to Padmā (wife of sage Pippalāda): “Obeisance to Śiva who distributes happiness, misery, boons, prosperity or adversity on all. Obeisance to Śiva who can make people enemies (śatru) or friends, create affection or quarrel, to generate or destroy things. Obeisance to Śiva who has made milk white, who has bestowed chillness on water and heat on fire. Obeisance to Śiva, by whom the primordial nature, the principles Mahat etc, Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva and others are created. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Śatru (शत्रु) refers to the “hostile king”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [The Yogin], whose foot-soldiers are his quietened senses and who is endowed with [a successful king’s] powers [in the form of] his higher faculty of discernment, becomes joyful when he has conquered the hostile mind-king (manaḥ-śatru) who is accompanied by his [royal] vehicle, the breath. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Śatru (शत्रु) denotes ‘enemy’ in the Rigveda and later

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śatru (शत्रु).—m (S) An enemy, adversary, foe. Ex. of comp. pittaśatru, kaphaśatru, vātaśatru, ghṛtaśatru, dugdhaśatru, buddhiśatru, jñānaśatru, ātmaśatru.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śatru (शत्रु).—m An enemy, foe, adversary.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śatru (शत्रु).—[śad-trun Uṇādi-sūtra 4.13]

1) An overthrower, a destroyer, conqueror.

2) An enemy, a foe, an adversary; क्षमा शत्रौ च मित्रे च यतीनामेव भुषणम् (kṣamā śatrau ca mitre ca yatīnāmeva bhuṣaṇam) Subhāṣ; ऋणकर्ता पिता शत्रुर्माता च व्यभिचारिणी । भार्या रूपवती शत्रुः पुत्रः शत्रुरपण्डितः (ṛṇakartā pitā śatrurmātā ca vyabhicāriṇī | bhāryā rūpavatī śatruḥ putraḥ śatrurapaṇḍitaḥ) || Subhāṣ.

3) A political rival, a rival neighbouring king.

Derivable forms: śatruḥ (शत्रुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śatru (शत्रु).—m.

(-truḥ) 1. An enemy, a foe, an adversary. 2. A destroyer. 3. A political enemy, a neighbouring prince as being one with whom disputes are likely to occur. E. śad to go, Unadi aff. trun .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śatru (शत्रु).— (rather śattru śattru, i. e. probably śad or śat, for śātaya, [Causal.] of śad, + tru, cf. [Gothic.] hats; [Anglo-Saxon.] hate, héte; perhaps [Latin] hod in odisse, hestis, and below), m. An enemy, a foe, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 131.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śatru (शत्रु).—[masculine] rival, adversary, enemy, [especially] the immediate neighbour of a prince as his natural enemy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śatru (शत्रु):—m. (said to be for śat-tru, [from] √2. śad), ‘overthrower’, an enemy, foe, rival, a hostile king ([especially] a neighbouring king as a natural enemy), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) the 6th astrological mansion,[Varāha-mihira’s Yogayātrā]

3) Asparagus Racemosus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Name of an Asura, [Mahābhārata i, 2543] (perhaps krodha-śatru as one word).

5) cf. [Greek], κότος, κοτέω; [German] Hader, Hass, hassen; [English] hate.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śatru (शत्रु):—(truḥ) 2. m. An enemy; rival.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śatru (शत्रु) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sattu.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shatru in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Śatru (शत्रु):—(nm) an enemy, a foe; ~[ghna/ghātī] destroyer/killer of the enemy; ~[jita] conqueror of the enemy; -[pakṣa] enemy side; hostile camp; ~[sāla] causing agony/woe to the enemy.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śatru (ಶತ್ರು):—[noun] a man who feels hatred for, fosters harmful designs against or engages in antagonistic activities against another; an adversary or opponent; an enemy; a foe.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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See also (Relevant definitions)

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