Mukula, Mukulā: 24 definitions


Mukula means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Mukul.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1a) Mukulā (मुकुला) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses a ‘transitory state’ (saṃcāribhāva). There are a total thirty-six glances defined.

1b) Mukulā (मुकुला, “bud”) also refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with a ‘single hand’ (asaṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

A type of glance (or facial expression): Mukula: the lashes trembling and touching, the expression of the pupils mild, the upper lids lowered; this ‘bud’ eye indicates bliss (ānanda).

Source: Natya Shastra

1) Mukulā (मुकुला).—A type of glance (dṛṣṭi) expressing a transitory state (saṃcāribhāva);—The Glance in which eyelashes are slightly trembling, the upper eyelids are of the Mukula type and the eyeballs are opened in happiness, is called Mukulā.

Uses of Mukulā—in sleeping, dreaming and happiness.

2) Mukulā (मुकुला, “bud”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with a single hand (asaṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): The fingers bent and close to one another and their tips meeting together in the Haṃsāsya hand.

(Uses): It is used to represent the making of offerings in worshipping a deity, bud of a lotus or a water-lily, throwing a kiss (viṭa-cumbana), contempt, miscellaneous things, taking meals, counting of gold coins, narrowing of the mouth, giving away [anything], quickness and buds of flowers.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

1) Mukula (मुकुल) refers to one of the twenty-two Asaṃyuktahastas or “single hand gestures” (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The hasta-mudrās (lit. “hand-gestures”) are very essential to denote some particular action or state in dancing and these mudrās are formed with the help of hands and fingers.—The term mukula has been defined clearly in the Śabdakalpadruma. It is said that the state of a bud during blooming refers to mukula. Thus, when the bud starts to bloom, it is termed as mukula. The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa suggests that the tips of all fingers of the hand should be joined together to make this posture. When the tips of all fingers are joined together, it makes a shape of a blooming bud. Thus, it justifies the name of this posture. Abhinavagupta also gives his view in the same way. According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, this posture is formed to show the activities like worshiping of deities and offering oblations. Moreover, to show the lotus flower this hand posture is suggested to be used in dance performance in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa.

In the Abhinayadarpaṇa, the mukula posture is suggested to be used to denote flowers like water lily and the flower of kadalī i.e., banana. It says that, the holding of five arrows by Kāmadeva and a signet or a seal are also identified through this hand posture. The action of eating is also shown with this hand posture

2) Mukulā (मुकुला) refers to one of the Thirty six kinds of Glances (dṛṣṭi) or “proper accomplishment of glances” (in Indian Dramas).—Dṛṣṭi is very important in a dance form. The appropriate movements of eyes, eyeballs and eyebrows of an artist make the performance more charming. There are thirty six kinds of glances (dṛṣṭi) accepted in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, for example mukulā, belonging to the sañcāriṇadṛṣṭi division.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Mukula (मुकुल) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Mukulam corresponds to Vīryā (according to Bharata). Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Mukula (मुकुल).—A King of the dynasty of Pūru. Mukula, Sṛñjaya, Bṛhadiṣu, Yavīnara and Kṛmila were the sons of King Bāhyāśva. All these five are known as Pāñcālas. Of these the family of Mukula comprised of Maukulyas. Mukula got a son named Pañcāśva. (Chapter 201, Agni Purāṇa.)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mukula (मुकुल) refers to “buds” (viz., of a lotus), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Śiva said to Sitā:—“[...] O my beloved, beautiful woman, clouds will not reach the place where I have to make an abode for you. [...] It [viz., the Himālayas] shines with ramparts of crystals, gold and silver. It is lustrous with the lakes—Mānasa and others. It abounds in buds (mukula) and full-blown lotuses with golden stalks studded with gems. Crocodiles, sharks and tortoises abound in the lakes”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Mukula (मुकुल) refers to “button (top element of the crowning motif) § 3.31.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Mukula in Angola is the name of a plant defined with Pterocarpus angolensis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Pterocarpus bussei Harms (among others).

2) Mukula in Central Africa is also identified with Xylopia aethiopica It has the synonym Xylopicrum aethiopicum Kuntze (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (8094)
· Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzenge schichte und Pflanzengeographie (1902)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1984)
· Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (1763)
· Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi (1954)
· Species Plantarum (1753)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Mukula, for example extract dosage, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

mukula : (nt.) a bud.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Mukula, (cp. Sk. mukula) a bud; see makula (where also see mukulita).—Abhp 811, 1116. (Page 534)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mukula (मुकुल).—m S A bud, esp. an opening bud.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mukula (मुकुल).—m An opening bud; a bud.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mukula (मुकुल).—

1) A bud; आविर्भूतप्रथममुकुलाः कन्दलीश्चानुकच्छम् (āvirbhūtaprathamamukulāḥ kandalīścānukaccham) Meghadūta 21; R.9.31;15.99.

2) Anything like a bud; आलक्ष्यदन्तमुकुलान् (ālakṣyadantamukulān) (tanayān) Ś.7.17.

3) The body.

4) The soul or spirit

5) A bud-like junction of the fingers. (mukulīkṛ means 'to close in the form of a bud'; athāgrahaste mukulīkṛtāṅgulau Kumārasambhava 5.63.) -a. Closed (as eyes).

Derivable forms: mukulaḥ (मुकुलः), mukulam (मुकुलम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukula (मुकुल).—mn.

(-laḥ-laṃ) 1. An opening bud. 2. The body. 3. The soul or spirit. E. muc to let loose, (the flower, &c.) ulac aff., ca changed to ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukula (मुकुल).— (also makula makula), m. and n. 1. An opening bud, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 9, 27 (muº); [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 14, 5 (da- śana-muº, bud-like teeth). 2. The body. 3. The soul.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukula (मुकुल).—[neuter] bud (also [figuratively] of a tooth).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mukula (मुकुल):—n. (m. [gana] ardharcādi; ifc. f(ā). ) a bud (also [figuratively] ‘a first tooth’), [Kālidāsa; Purāṇa; Suśruta] (in this sense also makula, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])

2) the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) the soul, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) (only n.) a kind of metre, [Kedāra’s Vṛtti-ratnākara]

5) m. (with hāsta) a bud-like junction or bringing together of the fingers of the hand, [Nalôd.]

6) Name of a king and another man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

7) (with bhaṭṭa) Name of an author, [Catalogue(s)]

8) mf(ā)n. closed (as eyes), [Mālatīmādhava [Scholiast or Commentator]]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukula (मुकुल):—[(laḥ-laṃ)] 1. m. n. An opening bud; the body; the soul.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mukula (मुकुल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Maula, Maulāa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mukula in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mukula (मुकुल) [Also spelled mukul]:—(nm) a bud, blossom.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mukula (ಮುಕುಲ):—[noun] = ಮುಕುಳ [mukula].

--- OR ---

Mukuḷa (ಮುಕುಳ):—

1) [noun] a blowing bud of a flower.

2) [noun] a gesture of hands, made by joining both the palms slightly hollowed, as a mark of obeissance, greeting, etc.

3) [noun] (pros.) a verse of four lines, each line having two groups of three syllables each, the first having all the three long prosodic units while the other having two short ones followed by a long one (—-, uu-).

4) [noun] (dance.) a particular single-hand gesture, a stretching of the fingers and bending slightly or completely as to make the tips of the fingers touch each other.

5) [noun] a gesture of the eyes, in which the eyelids are closed and the eye-balls are fixed.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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