Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 5.54.12

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

तं नाक॑म॒र्यो अगृ॑भीतशोचिषं॒ रुश॒त्पिप्प॑लं मरुतो॒ वि धू॑नुथ । सम॑च्यन्त वृ॒जनाति॑त्विषन्त॒ यत्स्वर॑न्ति॒ घोषं॒ वित॑तमृता॒यव॑: ॥
तं नाकमर्यो अगृभीतशोचिषं रुशत्पिप्पलं मरुतो वि धूनुथ । समच्यन्त वृजनातित्विषन्त यत्स्वरन्ति घोषं विततमृतायवः ॥
taṃ nākam aryo agṛbhītaśociṣaṃ ruśat pippalam maruto vi dhūnutha | sam acyanta vṛjanātitviṣanta yat svaranti ghoṣaṃ vitatam ṛtāyavaḥ ||

English translation:

Maruts, when moving, you agitate the heaven of unchecked radiance, and (stir) the bright water; when you combine your energies and are shining brilliantly, and when purposing to send down rain, you utter a loud shout.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

And stir the bright water: the text changes the person n of the verb, yat svaranti ghoṣam, when they sound a noise; i.e. when the Maruts make a fearful noise, or when the worshippers utter loud praises


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): śyāvāśva ātreyaḥ [śyāvāśva ātreya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): marūtaḥ;
Chandas (meter): jagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

तम् । नाक॑म् । अ॒र्यः । अगृ॑भीतऽशोचिषम् । रुश॑त् । पिप्प॑लम् । म॒रु॒तः॒ । वि । धू॒नु॒थ॒ । सम् । अ॒च्य॒न्त॒ । वृ॒जना॑ । अति॑त्विषन्त । यत् । स्वर॑न्ति । घोष॑म् । विऽत॑तम् । ऋ॒त॒ऽयवः॑ ॥
तम् । नाकम् । अर्यः । अगृभीतशोचिषम् । रुशत् । पिप्पलम् । मरुतः । वि । धूनुथ । सम् । अच्यन्त । वृजना । अतित्विषन्त । यत् । स्वरन्ति । घोषम् । विततम् । ऋतयवः ॥
tam | nākam | aryaḥ | agṛbhīta-śociṣam | ruśat | pippalam | marutaḥ | vi | dhūnutha | sam | acyanta | vṛjanā | atitviṣanta | yat | svaranti | ghoṣam | vi-tatam | ṛta-yavaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.54.12 English analysis of grammar]

taṃ < tam < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

nākam < nāka

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“sky; celestial sphere; Svarga; nāka [word].”

aryo < aryaḥ < ari

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

agṛbhītaśociṣaṃ < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

agṛbhītaśociṣaṃ < gṛbhīta < grah

[verb noun]

“take; grasp; take out; extract; perceive; pick; assume; include; accept; understand; use; learn; possess; keep; choose; accept; afflict; suck; paralyze; mention; mistake; eat; wear; embrace; fill into; capture; eclipse; get; collect; hand down; marry; heed; touch.”

agṛbhītaśociṣaṃ < śociṣam < śocis

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“fire; flare; burn; radiance.”


[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“white; bright; bright.”

pippalam < pippala

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter


maruto < marutaḥ < marut

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“Marut; vāta; wind; Vayu.”



“apart; away; away.”

dhūnutha < dhū

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“shake; remove; chase away.”



“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

acyanta < añc

[verb], plural, Imperfekt Passiv

vṛjanātitviṣanta < vṛjanā < vṛjana

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“community; settlement.”

vṛjanātitviṣanta < atitviṣanta < atitviṣ < √tviṣ

[verb], plural, Present injunctive



“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

svaranti < svar

[verb], plural, Present indikative


ghoṣaṃ < ghoṣam < ghoṣa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“sound; noise; cry; voice; ghoṣa [word]; station; Ghoṣa; post; twang.”

vitatam < vitan < √tan

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“expand; perform; scatter; prolong; increase.”

ṛtāyavaḥ < ṛtāyu

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

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