The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes birth of devas, daityas, birds and serpents etc. which is chapter 6 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the sixth chapter of the Srishti-khanda (section on creation) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Chapter 6 - Birth of Devas, Daityas, Birds and Serpents etc.

Bhīṣma said:

1. O sire, tell me duly and in detail, about the birth of gods, demons and of the Gandharvas, serpents and goblins.

Pulastya spoke:

2. The creation in ancient times is said to be effected by volition, sight and touch; (but) the creation after Prācetasa Dakṣa is effected by coitus.

3-4. Listen, O Kaurava, as to how he created (gods etc.): When he was creating groups of gods, sages and serpents, the world did not grow. So Dakṣa generated thousands of sons on his young maid-servant.

5-6. Seeing those magnanimous ones (i.e. Dakṣa’s sons), desiring to create various kinds of beings, Nārada said to Dakṣa’s sons who approached him:

“O you best sages, knowing the entire measure of the earth up and down, you should (proceed to) create with discrimination.”

7. Having heard these words, they went in all directions; and even now have not returned as rivers from the sea.

8. When Haryaśvas had disappeared, Dakṣa Prajāpati again produced a thousand sons on Vīriṇī.

9-10. Those (sons) named Śabalāśva gathered in the act of creation. To them, who went after (i.e. approached) Nārada, the sage told as before:

“Having known the entire extent of the earth, and coming back, you will especially undertake the creation.”

11. They followed their brothers along the same path. Since then a younger brother does not desire(to follow) the path of the (elder) brother.

12-16. The one who follows, gets into trouble; therefore, one should avoid it. When they too disappeared, Prācetasa Dakṣa Prajāpati generated sixty daughters on Vīriṇī. He gave (in marriage) ten (daughters) to Dharma, and thirteen to Kaśyapa, twenty-seven to Soma, and four to Ariṣṭanemi, two to Bhṛgu’s son, two to intelligent Kṛśāśva, and gave two to Aṅgiras. Hear in detail the names of these mothers of gods and the expanse of mankind from the beginning: Arundhatī, Vasu, Jāmī, Lambā, Bhānu, Marutvatī, Saṅkalpā, Muhūrtā, Sādehyā, and the beautiful Viśvā.

17. These are known to be the wives of Dharma. Know from me their sons; Viśvedevas were (the sons) of Viśvā, and Sādhyā gave birth to Sādhyas.

18. Marutvāns were born of Marutvatī, and Vasavas of Vasu; Bhānus of Bhānu and Muhūrtajas of Muhūrtā.

19. Those known as Ghoṣa were born of Lambā and Nāgavīthīs were born of Jāmī. Pṛthvītala and Sambhūta were born of Arundhatī.

20-23. Saṃkalpas were born of Saṃkalpā. Understand (now) the progeny of Vasu. Gods, bright and pervading all quarters, are called Vasus. Hear their names from me: Āpa, Dhruva, Soma, Dhara, Anila, Anala, Pratyūṣa and Prabhāsa are known as the eight Vasus. Āpa had four sons: Śrānta, Vaitaṇḍa and Śānta and the sage Babhru—(they were) the officers protecting the sacrifice. Kāla was the son of Dhruva, and Varcas was born from Soma.

24-25. Draviṇa and Havyavāha—these two are said to be the sons of Dhara. Hari’s sons were: Kalpāntastha and Prāṇa, Ramaṇa and also Śiśira, as well as the charming Dhava and Śiva. Śiva obtained a son, having the mind’s speed and giving (causing) unknown speed.

26. Anala also obtained sons like Śākha, Viśākha—self-existent in (supreme authorities on?) the Vedas—having mostly the qualities of fire.

27. Then Kārtikeya was known to be the child of the Kṛttikās. Ṛbhu, Muni and Devala were the sons of Pratyūṣa.

28-34. Viśvakarmā Prajāpati was the son of Prabhāsa. He was an architect (skilled) in (fashioning) palaces, houses, gardens, images, ornaments, lakes, parks and wells; he also was the carpenter of gods. Ajaikapāda, Ahirbudhnya, Virūpākṣa, Raivata, Hara, Bahurūpa, Tryambaka the lord of gods, Sāvitra, Jayanta, Pinākin, and Aparājita—these eleven, the lords of (Śiva’s) attendants, are called Rudra. These mind-born ones and holders of tridents are said to have eighty-four crores of imperishable sons, who, being the principal attendants in all the directions, protect; these are the sons and grandsons born from the womb of Surabhi. I shall name the sons and grandsons of Kaṣyapa’s wives: Aditi, Diti, Danu, Ariṣṭā, Surasā, Surabhi, Vinatā, Tāmrā, Krodhavaśā, Irā, Kadrū, Khasā, and Muni.

35-39. Hear now the (names of the) sons born from them: Those gods who were known as Tuṣita in the period of Cākṣuṣa Manu were known as the twelve Ādityas in the Vaivasvata period. Indra, Dhātā, Bhaga, Tvaṣṭā, Mitra, Varuṇa, Aryaman, Vivasvān, Savitā, Pūṣan, Aṃśumān, and Viṣṇu—these twelve are thousand-rayed Ādityas. From Kaśyapa, the son of Marīca, were born the sons of Aditi. The sons of the sage Kṛśāśva are known as Devapraharaṇa. These groups of gods, O dear one, are born and perish in the Manu-periods and in each Kalpa.

40. We have heard that Diti got two sons, Hiraṇyakaśipu and Hiraṇyākṣa, from Kaśyapa.

41. Similarly, four sons were born from Hiraṇyakaśipu: Prahlāda, Anuhlāda, Saṃhlāda, and Uhlāda.

42. The sons of Prahlāda were Āyuṣmān, Śibi, and Bāṣkali. The fourth son was Virocana by name. He got a son named Bali.

43. O king, Bali had a hundred sons with Bāṇa as the eldest; and also Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Sūrya, Vivasvān and Aṃśutāpana.

44. Nikumbha, Nāmāgu, Vakṣa, Kukṣi, Bhauma, and Bhīṣaṇa were many other (sons): but the eldest, viz. Bāṇa was preeminent in virtues.

45-47. Bāṇa had a thousand arms, and was endowed with excellence (in the use) of all missiles; and in his city the Trident-holder, pleased by his (i.e. Bāṇa’s) penance lived, and his being the destroyer (Mahākāla) of the world became significant. Hiraṇyākṣa’s son was Andhaka by name. And Bhūtasantāpana, and Mahānāga also were (his sons). From these were born seventy-seven crores of sons and grandsons.

48. They were very powerful, had gigantic bodies and many forms and were very vigorous. From Kaśyapa, Danu obtained a hundred sons proud of boons.

49-53. Among them Vipracitti, of great power, was the chief. (Others were) Dviraṣṭamūrdhā, Śakuni, Śaṅkuśirodhara, Ayomukha, Śambara, Kapila, Vāmana, Marīci, Māgadha, and Hari. Gajaśiras, Nidrādhara, Ketu, Ketuvīrya Taśakratu, Indramitragraha, Vrajanābha, Ekavastra, Mahābāhu, Vajrākṣa, Tāraka, Asiloman, Puloman, Vikurvāṇa, Mahāpura, Svarbhānu, and Vṛṣaparvan—these and others were also Danu’s sons. Suprabhā was Svarbhānu’s daughter, and Śacī was the daughter of Puloman.

54. Maya’s daughters were Upadānavī, Mandodarī and Kuhū. Vṛṣaparvan’s daughters were Sarmiṣṭhā, Sundarī and Caṇḍā.

55. Pulomā and Kālakā were the two daughters of Vaiśvānara; Mārīca’s very spirited wife had many children.

56. From the two, sixty-thousand Dānavas were born in olden times; Mārīca generated the Paulomas and Kālakhañjas.

57. They, living in Hiraṇyapura, having obtained a boon from Brahmā, were incapable of being killed by men, but were killed by Arjuna.

58-60. Vipracitti begot nine sons on Siṃhikā. Hiraṇyakaśipu’s sister’s sons were thirteen: Kaṃsa, Śaṃkha, Rājendra, Nala, Vātāpi, Ilvala, Namuci, Khasṛma, Añjana, Naraka, Kālanābha, Paramāṇu and the well-known Kalpavīrya, who exalted Danu’s race.

61-63. In the family of the demon Saṃhlāda, (were) born the Nivātakavacas, incapable of being killed by all gods, Gandharvas, serpents and fiends, (but) who were killed in battle by Arjuna resorting to power. From the semen of Mārīca, Tāmrā gave birth to six daughters: Śukī, Śyenī, Bhāsī, Sugṛdhrī, Gṛdhrikā and Śucī. Śukī lawfully gave birth to parrots and owls.

64. śyenī gave birth to hawks and Bhāsī to ospreys, Gṛdhrī to vultures and Sugṛdhrī to birds like pigeons.

65-67. Śucī gave birth to swans, cranes and ducks. These are said to be the sons of Tāmrā. Listen to (the names of the offspring) of Vinatā: Garuḍa, the best among birds, and Aruṇa, the lord of birds, and daughter Saudāminī well-known in the sky. Sampāti and Jaṭāyu were the two sons of Aruṇa; Sampāti’s son was Babhru, who was swift and very well-known.

68. Jaṭāyu’s famous sons were Karṇikāra and Śatagāmin. From them innumerable sons and grandsons of birds were born.

69. A thousand serpents were formerly born on Surasā. Kadrū, of a good vow, obtained a thousand (sons), the Nāgas.

70-74. Of them, O subduer of enemies, twenty-six prominent ones are famous: Śeṣa, Vāsuki, Karkoṭa, Śaṅkha, Airāvata, Kambala, Dhanañjaya, Mahānīla, Padma, Aśvatara, Takṣaka, Elāpatra, Mahāpadma, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Balāhaka, Śaṅkhapāla, Mahāśaṅkha, Puṣpadamṣṭra, Śubhānana, Śaṅkha, Romāca, Nahuṣa, Ramaṇa, Paṇina, Kapila, Durmukha, and Patañjali. These had innumerable sons and grandsons, who were mostly burnt in the abode of Janamejaya. Krodhavaśā gave birth to the well-known group of demons.

75-76. A lakh of these snakes perished at the hands of Bhīmasena. From Kaśyapa Surabhi formerly gave birth to snakes, jackals, crows etc. and the triad of buffaloes, cows and excellent ladies. Similarly, Muni gave birth to a group of sages and of the celestial nymphs.

77. In the same, way, Ariṣṭā gave birth to many Kinnaras and Gandharvas; Irā created all the grass, trees and clumps of creepers.

78. Khasā gave birth to crores of Yakṣas and demons. These hundreds and thousands are Kaśyapa’s relatives.

79. O Bhīṣma, this is known to be the creation in the Manu-period named Svārociṣa. Then, O you, conversant with religious law, Diti gave birth to forty-nine Maruts, all dear to gods.

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