Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra

by Helen M. Johnson | 1931 | 742,503 words

This is the English translation of the Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Charita (literally “The lives of the sixty-three illustrious People”), a Sanskrit epic poem written by Hemachandra in the twelfth century. The work relates the history and legends of important figures in the Jain faith. These 63 persons include: the twenty four tirthankaras , the t...

Appendix 1.5: The 108 Qualities of the Pañcaparameṣṭhins

Alternative name: Pañcaparameṣṭhin (पञ्चपरमेष्ठिन्, “pancaparameshthin” or “pancaparamesthin”).

The number 108 plays a very important part in Jainism and represents the total of the qualities of the five Parameṣṭhins. These are as follows: (Pañcapratikramaṇasūtra pp. 2 ff.).

I. Twelve qualities of the Arhats.

1-8. Prātihāryas, miraculous appearances.

  1. aśokavṛkṣa, aśoka tree.
  2. surapuṣpavṛṣṭi, a shower of flowers by the gods.
  3. divyadhvani, heavenly music.
  4. cāmara, chauris.
  5. siṃhāsana, throne.
  6. bhāmaṇḍala, halo.
  7. dundubhi, heavenly drum.
  8. trichatra, triple umbrella.

Pravacanasāroddhāra 440, p. 106.

  1. Apāyāpagamātiśaya, complete freedom from injury.
  2. Jñānātiśaya, perfect knowledge.
  3. Pūjātiśaya, worship by every one.
  4. Vacanātiśaya, supernatural characteristics of speech.

There are 35 of these enumerated in Abhidhānacintāmaṇi (Bhav.) 1. 65-71.

Numbers 9-12 are called ‘mūlātiśayas.’

II. Eight qualities of the Siddhas.

  1. Anantajñāna, infinite knowledge.
  2. Anantadarśana, infinite faith.
  3. Anantacāritra, infinite good-conduct.
  4. Avyābādhasukha, undisturbable bliss.
  5. Akṣayasthiti, permanent state as siddha.
  6. Arūpatva, state of being a pure spirit.
  7. Agurulaghu, being neither too light nor too heavy.
  8. Anantavīrya, infinite power.

The Lokaprakāśa (2. 78) gives some slight variants.

III. Thirty-six qualities of Ācāryas.

5 pañcendriyas, control of 5 senses.

9 brahmacaryaguptis, controls of chastity.

  1. Not to use bed, bedding, house or seat connected with women, animals or eunuchs.
  2. Avoidance of all conversation about women.
  3. Not to join any gathering of women.
  4. Not to look at a woman’s features.
  5. Not to eat highly flavored food.
  6. Not to take too much food or drink:
  7. Not to think about former pleasures connected with women.
  8. Not to indulge in anything pertaining to the 5 senses which arouses love.
  9. Avoidance of pleasure (sāta).

These are from Samavāyāṅgasūtra 9. p. 15. The Study of Jainism p. 63, gives a list with some variations.

4 kaṣāyamuktis, freedom from passions.
5 mahāvratas.
5 ācāras, practice of knowledge, faith, right-conduct, penance, and power.
5 samitis.
3 guptis.

IV. Twenty-five qualities of Upādhyāyas.

1-11. Knowledge of the 11 Aṅgas.

12-23. Knowledge of the 12 Upāṅgas.

24. Caraṇasaptati.

10 yatidharmas.
5 mahāvratas.
17 saṃyamas.
10 vaiyāvṛttyas.
9 brahmaguptis.
3 jewels.
12 tapas.
4 control of 4 kaṣāyas.

25. Karaṇasaptati.

4 piṇḍaviśuddhi.
5 samitis.
12 bhāvanās.
12 prātimās (sādhuprātimās are a series of fasts. See Pañcāśākagrantha Chap. 18).
5 indriyanirodhas.

25 pratilekhanās. Minute inspection of possessions to be sure they are free from life.

At dawn, inspection of 11 objects is made.

  1. mukhapotikā, mouth-cloth.
  2. colapaṭṭa, loin-doth.
  3. kalpa, 1 woolen garment.
  4. (4-5) kalpa, 2 cotton garments.
  5. niṣadyā, inner cloth on broom-handle.
  6. niṣadyā, outer cloth on broom-handle.
  7. rajoharaṇa, broom.
  8. saṃstāraka, bedding.
  9. uttarapaṭṭa, bed-cover.
  10. daṇḍa, staff.

About 3:00 p.m. the following 14 articles are inspected.

  1. mukhapotikā.
  2. colapatta.
  3. gocchaka, cover for alms-bowl.
  4. pātrapratilekhanikā, small brush for cleaning.
  5. pātrabandha, cloth in which alms-bowl is tied up.
  6. paṭalāni, 3 cloths used as covers.
  7. rajastrāṇa, doth for covering bowl.
  8. pātrasthāpana, blanket on which pātras are placed when not in use.
  9. mātraka, a kind of pātra.
  10. patadgraha=pātra.
  11. rajoharaṇa.
  12. (23-25) kalpatrika, 3 garments.

See Pravacanasāroddhāra 492-499, pp. 118 f. and p. 166, and Praśnavyākaraṇa 29, p. 156.

3 guptis.
4 abhigrahas.

For the caraṇasaptati and karaṇasaptati see Pravacanasāroddhāra 552-596. PP. 132 ff.

V. Twenty-seven qualities of Sādhus.

5 mahāvratas.
1 no food at night.
6 protection of 6 classes of kāyas.
5 control of 5 senses.
1 lobhanigraha, suppression of greed.
1 kṣamā, forbearance.
1 cittaśuddhi, purity of mind.
1 pratilekhanāviśuddhi, inspection.
1 saṃyamayogapravṛtti, activities that lead to self-control.
3 mano-, vacana-, kāyanirodha.
1 parīṣahasahana, endurance of 22 trials.
1 upasargasahana, endurance of calamities.

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