by Helen M. Johnson | 1931 | 742,503 words
This is the English translation of the Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Charita (literally “The lives of the sixty-three illustrious People”), a Sanskrit epic poem written by Hemachandra in the twelfth century. The work relates the history and legends of important figures in the Jain faith. These 63 persons include: the twenty four tirthankaras , the t...
The number 108 plays a very important part in Jainism and represents the total of the qualities of the five Parameṣṭhins. These are as follows: (Pañcapratikramaṇasūtra pp. 2 ff.).
I. Twelve qualities of the Arhats.
1-8. Prātihāryas, miraculous appearances.
- aśokavṛkṣa, aśoka tree.
- surapuṣpavṛṣṭi, a shower of flowers by the gods.
- divyadhvani, heavenly music.
- cāmara, chauris.
- siṃhāsana, throne.
- bhāmaṇḍala, halo.
- dundubhi, heavenly drum.
- trichatra, triple umbrella.
Pravacanasāroddhāra 440, p. 106.
- Apāyāpagamātiśaya, complete freedom from injury.
- Jñānātiśaya, perfect knowledge.
- Pūjātiśaya, worship by every one.
- Vacanātiśaya, supernatural characteristics of speech.
There are 35 of these enumerated in Abhidhānacintāmaṇi (Bhav.) 1. 65-71.
Numbers 9-12 are called ‘mūlātiśayas.’
II. Eight qualities of the Siddhas.
- Anantajñāna, infinite knowledge.
- Anantadarśana, infinite faith.
- Anantacāritra, infinite good-conduct.
- Avyābādhasukha, undisturbable bliss.
- Akṣayasthiti, permanent state as siddha.
- Arūpatva, state of being a pure spirit.
- Agurulaghu, being neither too light nor too heavy.
- Anantavīrya, infinite power.
The Lokaprakāśa (2. 78) gives some slight variants.
III. Thirty-six qualities of Ācāryas.
5 pañcendriyas, control of 5 senses.
9 brahmacaryaguptis, controls of chastity.
- Not to use bed, bedding, house or seat connected with women, animals or eunuchs.
- Avoidance of all conversation about women.
- Not to join any gathering of women.
- Not to look at a woman’s features.
- Not to eat highly flavored food.
- Not to take too much food or drink:
- Not to think about former pleasures connected with women.
- Not to indulge in anything pertaining to the 5 senses which arouses love.
- Avoidance of pleasure (sāta).
These are from Samavāyāṅgasūtra 9. p. 15. The Study of Jainism p. 63, gives a list with some variations.
4 kaṣāyamuktis, freedom from passions.
5 ācāras, practice of knowledge, faith, right-conduct, penance, and power.
IV. Twenty-five qualities of Upādhyāyas.
1-11. Knowledge of the 11 Aṅgas.
12-23. Knowledge of the 12 Upāṅgas.
12 prātimās (sādhuprātimās are a series of fasts. See Pañcāśākagrantha Chap. 18).
25 pratilekhanās. Minute inspection of possessions to be sure they are free from life.
At dawn, inspection of 11 objects is made.
- mukhapotikā, mouth-cloth.
- colapaṭṭa, loin-doth.
- kalpa, 1 woolen garment.
- (4-5) kalpa, 2 cotton garments.
- niṣadyā, inner cloth on broom-handle.
- niṣadyā, outer cloth on broom-handle.
- rajoharaṇa, broom.
- saṃstāraka, bedding.
- uttarapaṭṭa, bed-cover.
- daṇḍa, staff.
About 3:00 p.m. the following 14 articles are inspected.
- gocchaka, cover for alms-bowl.
- pātrapratilekhanikā, small brush for cleaning.
- pātrabandha, cloth in which alms-bowl is tied up.
- paṭalāni, 3 cloths used as covers.
- rajastrāṇa, doth for covering bowl.
- pātrasthāpana, blanket on which pātras are placed when not in use.
- mātraka, a kind of pātra.
- (23-25) kalpatrika, 3 garments.
See Pravacanasāroddhāra 492-499, pp. 118 f. and p. 166, and Praśnavyākaraṇa 29, p. 156.
For the caraṇasaptati and karaṇasaptati see Pravacanasāroddhāra 552-596. PP. 132 ff.
V. Twenty-seven qualities of Sādhus.
1 no food at night.
6 protection of 6 classes of kāyas.
5 control of 5 senses.
1 lobhanigraha, suppression of greed.
1 kṣamā, forbearance.
1 cittaśuddhi, purity of mind.
1 pratilekhanāviśuddhi, inspection.
1 saṃyamayogapravṛtti, activities that lead to self-control.
3 mano-, vacana-, kāyanirodha.
1 parīṣahasahana, endurance of 22 trials.
1 upasargasahana, endurance of calamities.