Upanaya, Upanāya: 13 definitions


Upanaya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Upanaya in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Upanaya (उपनय, “application”) refers to the fourth of five stages of syllogism (parārthānumāna) also known as “anumāna (inference) intended for another”, according to Annaṃbhaṭṭa’s Tarkasaṃgraha. Anumāna is the second of the four “means of valid knowledge” (pramāṇa), which in turn is classified as the first of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Parārtha-anumāna (syllogism) consists of five members. The fourth member is upanaya or the application. The declaration of mark accompanied by the invariable concomitance of the thing to prove is the application.

As for example:

  1. The mountain is fiery (pratijñā),
  2. Because it has smoke (hetu),
  3. Whatever has smoke is fiery. For example, a kitchen (udāharaṇa),
  4. The mountain has smoke which is invariably concomitant with fire (upanaya),
  5. Hence, the mountain is fiery (nigamana),
Nyaya book cover
context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Upanaya (उपनय):—[upanayaḥ] Step of discussion and interpretation of hypothesis which bring the argument nearer to the truth

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Upanaya (उपनय) refers to a type of Brahmacārin: the first of the four stages of a layman (āśrama) according to Cāmuṇḍarāya (940–989 A.D.) in his Caritra-sāra. Upanaya-brahmacārin refers to the young student who after the upanayana ceremony studies the āgama before entry into the household life.

Cāmuṇḍarāya, who was a Digambara Jain, has taken over the Hindu concept of the four āśramas, which, following Jinasena, he terms brahmacārin (e.g., Upanaya), gṛhastha, vānaprastha, and bhikṣu.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upanaya (उपनय).—

1) Bringing near, fetching.

2) Gaining, attaining, procuring. नान्यं तवाङ्घ्रयुपनयादपवर्गमूर्तेः क्षेमं जनस्य परितो भिय ईश विद्मः (nānyaṃ tavāṅghrayupanayādapavargamūrteḥ kṣemaṃ janasya parito bhiya īśa vidmaḥ) Bhāgavata 12.8.43.

3) Employing

4) Investiture with the sacred thread, initiation into sacred study, handing a youth of the first three castes to a teacher; गृह्योक्तकर्मणा येन समीपं नीयते गुरोः । बालो वेदाय तद्योगात् बालस्योपनयं विदुः (gṛhyoktakarmaṇā yena samīpaṃ nīyate guroḥ | bālo vedāya tadyogāt bālasyopanayaṃ viduḥ) || (By this ceremony spiritual birth is conferred upon the youth, and he becomes a dvijanman; the ages at which the ceremony may be performed by the three castes are respectively 8-16, 11-22 and 12-24; (see Manusmṛti 2.36-38; of what materials &c. the cords should be, is mentioned in 2.41-46).

5) The fourth member of the five-membered Indian syllogism (in logic), the application to the special case in question; व्याप्तिविशिष्टस्य हेतोः पक्षधर्मताप्रतिपादकं वचनमुपनयः (vyāptiviśiṣṭasya hetoḥ pakṣadharmatāpratipādakaṃ vacanamupanayaḥ) Tarka K.

6) Introduction, initiation (into any science); see next.

Derivable forms: upanayaḥ (उपनयः).

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Upanāya (उपनाय).—= उपनय (upanaya) q. v.

Derivable forms: upanāyaḥ (उपनायः).

See also (synonyms): upanāyana.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upanaya (उपनय).—m.

(-yaḥ) The initiation of the three first classes; investiture with a peculiar thread or cord worn over the left shoulder, and under the right: the cord of the Brahman is of cotton, Munja, or Kusa grass; of the Kshetriya, of Sana or flax; and of the Vaisya, of wool: the youths should be invested respectively, from eight to sixteen, from eleven to twenty-two, and from twelve to twentyfour years of age. n.

(-naṃ) 1. Attaining, gaining. 2. Bringing to E. upa over, nīñ to obtain, ac affix; also with ghañ affix upanāya, and with lyuṭ affix upanayana.

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Upanāya (उपनाय).—m.

(-yaḥ) See upanaya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upanaya (उपनय).—i. e. upa-nī + a, m. 1. Supplying, Mahābhārata 3, 70. 2. Applying, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 37, 30.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upanaya (उपनय).—[masculine] bringing near, procuring, getting, obtaining, employing; introduction (into a science).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Upanaya (उपनय):—[=upa-naya] a upa-nayana See p. 201, col. 2.

2) Upanāya (उपनाय):—[=upa-nāya] a etc. See p. 201, col. 2.

3) Upanaya (उपनय):—[=upa-naya] [from upa-nī] b m. the bringing near, procuring, [Mahābhārata]

4) [v.s. ...] attaining, obtaining, obtainment, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] employment, application, [Rāmāyaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] application (the fourth member in a five fold syllogism), [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha; Tarkasaṃgraha] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] introduction (into any science), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

8) [v.s. ...] initiation = the next, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) Upanāya (उपनाय):—[=upa-nāya] [from upa-nī] b m. leader, [Ṛg-veda ix, 91, 4], initiation, = upa-nayana, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Upanaya (उपनय):—[upa-naya] (yaḥ) 1. m. A ceremony of initiation, investiture.

2) Upanāya (उपनाय):—[upa-nāya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Upanaya (उपनय) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Uvaṇaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Upanaya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Upanaya (ಉಪನಯ):—

1) [noun] = ಉಪನಯನ - [upanayana -] 1.

2) [noun] (log.) the fourth member of the five membered Indian syllogism; the application to the special case in question.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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