Upa: 18 definitions


Upa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Upa means first;

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Upa in Cameroon is the name of a plant defined with Irvingia gabonensis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Fegimanra africana (Oliv.) Pierre (among others).

2) Upa in India is also identified with Salvadora persica It has the synonym Salvadora paniculata Zucc. ex Steud. (etc.).

3) Upa in Nigeria is also identified with Afzelia africana It has the synonym Afzelia africana J.E. Smith ex Pers. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Manding Art and Civilisation. (1972)
· Synopseos Plantarum (1805)
· Cytologia (1988)
· Nat. Prod. Res. (2003)
· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1995)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Upa, for example extract dosage, side effects, health benefits, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, chemical composition, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Upa-, (Vedic upa; Av. upa on, up; Gr. u(pό under, u(pέr over; Lat. sub fr. *(e)ks-upo; Goth. uf under & on; Ohg. ūf = Ags. up = E. up; Oir. fo under. See also upari) prefix denoting nearness or close touch (cp. similarly ā), usually with the idea of approach from below or rest on top, on, upon, up, by.—In compn. a upa is always contracted to upa, e.g. devūpaṭṭhāna, lokûpaga, puññûpatthambhita.—Meanings: (1) (Rest): on upon, up —: °kiṇṇa covered over; °jīvati live on (cp. anu°); °tthambhita propped up, sup-ported; °cita heaped up, ac-cumulated; °dhāreti hold or take up; °nata bent on; °nissaya foundation; °nissita depending on etc.—(2) (Aim): (out) up to (the speaker or hearer); cp. the meanings developed out of this as “higher, above” in upara, upari, upama = Lat. superus, supremus E. g. °kaḍḍhati drag on to; °kappati come to, accrue; °kappana ad-ministering; °kāra service to; °kkhata administered; °gacchati go to, ap-proach (cp. upâtigacchati); °disati ad-vise; °dhāvati run up to: °nadati to sound out; °nikkhamati come out up to; °nisevita gone on to or after; °neti bring on to; etc.—(3) (Nearness): close by, close to, near, “ad-”; e.g. °kaṇṇaka close to the ear; °cāra ap-plication; °ṭṭhāna at-tending; ṭṭhita ap-proached; °tiṭṭhati stand by, look after; °dduta urged; °nāmeti place close to; °nibandhati tie close to; °nisīdati sit close to or down by.—(4) (Intensive use): quite, altogether, “up”; e.g. °antika quite near; °chindati cut up.—(5) (Diminutive use as in Lat. subabsurdus; Gr. u(poλeukos whitish; Oir. fo-dord; Cymr. go-durdd murmur): nearly, about, somewhat, a little, secondary, by —, miniature, made after the style of, e.g. °aḍḍha about half; °kacchaka like a little hollow; °kaṇḍakin (= °paṇḍukin? whitish); °deva a minor god; °nibha somewhat similar to; °nila bluish; upapurohita minor priest; uparajja viceroyalty; upalohitaka, uparopa; °vana a little forest. etc. Note. The nearest semantie affinity of upa is ā°. (Page 138)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upa (उप).—S A particle and prefix implying I. Vicinity or assemblage: (near, by the side of, with.) II. Inferiority: (less, minor, secondary.) III. Excess: (over, above, beyond.) IV. Likeness or resemblance. V. It is often redundant.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

upa (उप).—A particle and prefix implying vi- cinity; inferiority, excess, likeness.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upa (उप).—ind.

1) As a prefix to verbs and nouns it expresses towards, near to, by the side of, with, under, down (opp. apa). According to G. M. the following are its senses :-उप सामीप्यसामर्थ्यव्याप्त्याचार्यकृतिमृतिदोषदानक्रियावीप्सा- रम्भाध्ययनबुजनेषु (upa sāmīpyasāmarthyavyāptyācāryakṛtimṛtidoṣadānakriyāvīpsā- rambhādhyayanabujaneṣu) :-(1) nearness, contiguity उपविशति, उपगच्छति (upaviśati, upagacchati) goes near; (2) power, ability उपकरोति (upakaroti); (3) pervasion उपकीर्ण (upakīrṇa); (4) advice, instructing as by a teachar उपदिशति, उपदेश (upadiśati, upadeśa); (5) death, extinction, उपरत (uparata); (6) defect, fault उपघात (upaghāta); (7) giving उपनयति, उपहरति (upanayati, upaharati); (8) action, effort उप त्वानेष्ये (upa tvāneṣye); (9) beginning, commencement उपक्रमते, उपक्रम (upakramate, upakrama); (1) study उपाध्यायः (upādhyāyaḥ); (11) reverence, worship उपस्थानम्, उपचरति पितरं पुत्रः (upasthānam, upacarati pitaraṃ putraḥ). It is also said to have the senses of disease, ornament, command, reproof, killing, wish, resemblance &c.

2) As unconnected with verbs and prefixed to nouns, it expresses direction towards, nearness, resemblance, relationship, contiguity in space, number, time, degree &c., but generally involving the idea of subordination or inferiority; उपकनिष्ठिका (upakaniṣṭhikā) the finger next to the little finger; उपपुराणम् (upapurāṇam) a secondary Purāṇa; उपगुरुः (upaguruḥ) an assistant master; उपाध्यक्षः (upādhyakṣaḥ) a vice-president. It usually, however, forms Avyayī. comp. in these senses; उपगङ्गम् (upagaṅgam) = गङ्गायाः समीपे (gaṅgāyāḥ samīpe); उपकूलम्, °वनम् (upakūlam, °vanam) &c.; these are again compounded with other words; उपकूपजलाशयः (upakūpajalāśayaḥ); उपकण्ठ- निवासिनी (upakaṇṭha- nivāsinī). Prefixed to proper nouns it means a 'younger brother'; उपेन्द्रः (upendraḥ).

3) With numerals it forms संख्याबहुव्रीहि (saṃkhyābahuvrīhi) and means 'nearly', 'almost'; उपत्रिंशाः (upatriṃśāḥ) nearly thirty; उपविंशाः (upaviṃśāḥ) about twenty &c.

4) As a separable preposition (a) with acc. when it means inferiority उपोधिकेच (upodhikeca) (P.I. 4.87) उपहरिं सुराः (upahariṃ surāḥ) Sk. the gods are under i. e. are inferior to Hari; शक्रादय उपाच्युतम् (śakrādaya upācyutam) Vop. (b) With loc. it expresses (1) over, above, superior to; उपनिष्के कार्षापणम्, उपपरार्धे हरेर्गुणाः (upaniṣke kārṣāpaṇam, upaparārdhe harerguṇāḥ); (2) addition; (3) near to, towards, in the direction of, under; (4) at, on, upon; (5) upto, in, above; e. g. उप सानुषु (upa sānuṣu) on or above the peaks; वयो न वसतीरुप (vayo na vasatīrupa); or sometimes (c) with the instr.; with, at the same time with, according to.

5) As a separable adverb it is rarely used in the senses of further, moreover. उपसन्नेऽधिके हीने सादृश्यप्रतियत्नयोः ॥ तद्योगव्याप्तिपूजासु शक्तावारम्भदानयोः ॥ दक्षिणाचार्यकरणदोषाख्यानात्ययेषु च (upasanne'dhike hīne sādṛśyapratiyatnayoḥ || tadyogavyāptipūjāsu śaktāvārambhadānayoḥ || dakṣiṇācāryakaraṇadoṣākhyānātyayeṣu ca) | [cf. Gr. hupo; L. sub; Goth. up; Germ. ob.].

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upa (उप).—ind. A particle and prefix to verbs and other words implying, 1. Excess, (over, above, &c.;) 2. Vicinity or assemblage, (near, by the side of, with, together with;) 3. Inferiority. (lesser, secondary, &c.;) 4. Likeness, resemblance; 5. Disease, extinction; 6. Ornament; 7. Command; 8. Reproof; 9. Astonishing; 10. Giving; 11. Killing; 12. Diffusion; 13. Wish, desire; 14. Effort, exertion, &c. as upakarttuṃ to assist; upagantuṃ to approach; upadeṣṭuṃ to advice; upalabdhuṃ to revile; upasthātuṃ to worship; also upapurāṇaṃ an inferior or minor Purana, upakumbhaṃ near the water-pot, upagaṅgaṃ upon the Ganges, upakāntaṃ near or with a lover, upāgni in the vicinity of fire.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upa (उप).—ind. Under, on, near. I. adv. Near, further (ved.). Ii. prep. Near to (with the acc.), Mahābhārata 1, 4099. Iii. Combined and compounded with verbs and their derivatives (q. cf.). Iv. Former part of comp. nouns and adv. implying Inferiority, Nearness, e. g. upa-vana (lit., an inferior, a small, forest), n. A grove. upa-kīcaka, m. A partisan of the Kīcakas (a people). upa-graha, m. A minor planet or any secondary heavenly body, as a comet, etc. upa-kanyā-pura + m. adv. Near the gyneceum.

— Cf. [Gothic.] uf, e. g. in ufdaupjan (to submerge), ufsneithan (to cut up), and ufhaban (to lift); [Latin] sub is compounded with sa, corresponding to a Sskr. sa-upa; likewise

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upa (उप).—[adverb] thereto, further, as [preposition] towards, unto, near, at, in, *below, less than ([accusative]); near, by, at, upon, at the time of, up to, *above, more than ([locative]); together with, according to ([instrumental]). — It is mostly used °— in verbs, adverbs or nouns, denoting approach, vicinity, or inferiority (cf upagam; gamana, mūlam, purāṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Upa (उप):—ind. (a preposition or prefix to verbs and nouns, expressing) towards, near to (opposed to apa, away), by the side of, with, together with, under, down (e.g. upa-√gam, to go near, undergo; upa-gamana, approaching; in the Veda the verb has sometimes to be supplied from the context, and sometimes upa is placed after the verb to which it belongs, e.g. āyayur upa = upāyayuḥ, they approached). (As unconnected with verbs and prefixed to nouns upa expresses) direction towards, nearness, contiguity in space, time, number, degree, resemblance, and relationship, but with the idea of subordination and inferiority (e.g. upa-kaniṣṭhikā, the finger next to the little finger; upa-purāṇam, a secondary or subordinate Purāṇa; upa-daśa, nearly ten)

2) sometimes forming with the nouns to which it is prefixed compound adverbs (e.g. upa-mūlam, at the root; upa-pūrva-rātram, towards the beginning of night; upa-kūpe, near a well) which lose their adverbial terminations if they are again compounded with nouns (e.g. upakūpa-jalāśaya, a reservoir in the neighbourhood of a well)

3) prefixed to proper names upa may express in classical literature ‘a younger brother’ (e.g. upendra, ‘the younger brother of Indra’), and in Buddhist literature ‘a son.’ (As a separable adverb upa rarely expresses) thereto, further, moreover (e.g. tatropa brahma yo veda, who further knows the Brahman), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra] (As a separable preposition) near to, towards, in the direction of, under, below (with [accusative] e.g. upa āśāḥ, towards the regions)

4) near to, at, on, upon

5) at the time of, upon, up to, in, above (with [locative case] e.g. upa sānuṣu, on the tops of the mountains)

6) with, together with, at the same time with, according to (with inst. e.g. upa dharmabhiḥ, according to the rules of duty), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] upa, besides the meanings given above, is said by native authorities to imply disease, extinction; ornament; command; reproof; undertaking; giving; killing; diffusing; wish; power; effort; resemblance, etc.;

7) cf. [Zend] upa; [Greek] ὑπό; [Latin] sub; [Gothic] uf; Old [German] oba; [modern] [German] ob in Obdach, obliegen, etc.

8) Upā (उपा):—ind. a particular Nidhana or concluding chorus at the end of a Sāman, [Lāṭyāyana vii, 10, 1 ff.; Sāyaṇa on Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa]

9) Ūpā (ऊपा):—f. a kind of Nidhana, [???]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upa (उप):—prep. Near; less; over.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Upa (उप) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ula.

[Sanskrit to German]

Upa in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Upa (उप) [Also spelled up]:——a Sanskrit prefix denoting proximity, commencement, diminution, subordination, secondary character, etc.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Upa (ಉಪ):—[noun] service; attendance; honouring; worshipping.

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Upa (ಉಪ):—

1) [prefix] '[a prefix somewhat equal to ''sub-'' of English] lower in rank, position or importance than; subordinate to.'2) [prefix] that forms a division into smaller or less important parts.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Upa (உப) particle < upa. A Sanskrit adverbial or adnominal prefix implying proximity or subsidiariness; உபசந்தி உபக்கிரகம் என்பவற்றிற் போலச் சமீபம் அப்பிரதானம் என்பவைகளைக் காட் டும் ஒரு வடமொழி யுபசருக்கம். [upasanthi upakkiragam enpavarrir polas samipam appirathanam enpavaigalaig kad dum oru vadamozhi yupasarukkam.]

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Upā (உபா) noun Tooth-brush tree. See உகா. [uga.] (L.)

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Upā (உபா) noun Subtle elements; தன்மாத் திரை. உபாக்கடெரிவுரைப்பின் [thanmath thirai. upakkaderivuraippin] (நீலகேசி [nilagesi], 486, உரை. [urai.])

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Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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