Upapada, Upapāda: 12 definitions

Introduction

Upapada means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: archive.org: Uṇādi-Sūtras In The Sanskrit Grammatical Tradition

Upapada (उपपद).—One of the technical terms which have been used in the uṇādi-sūtras;—Upapada is a very important technical term so far as the relation of the uṇādi-sūtras to the Aṣṭādhyāyī is concerned. The term is exclusively meant for ‘kṛt’ suffixes which extend from Pa. III.1.90 to the end of the third adhyāya. Pāṇini defines it in the sūtra ‘tatropapadam saptamīstham’ (Pa. III.1.92). “In Pāṇini’s grammar the term upapada is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt suffixes.” The same application holds good in the case of the uṇādi-sūtras.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Upapada (उपपद).—Lit.a word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद (upapada) is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; cf. तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् (tatropapadaṃ saptamīstham) P.III.1.92; e.g. कर्मणि (karmaṇi) in कर्मण्यण् (karmaṇyaṇ) P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे (yuṣmadyupapade) as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे (prahāse ca manyopapade) P.I.4.105,106; cf. also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः (kriyārthāyāṃ kriyāyāmupapade dhātorbhaviṣyati kāle tumunṇvulau bhavataḥ) Kāś. on P.III.3.10; cf. also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च (itaretarānyonyopapadācca) P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे (mithyopapadāt kṛñobhyāse) P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् (upapadamatiṅ) P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् (gatikārakopapadātkṛt) P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārt. 2 explains the word उपपद (upapada) as उपोच्चारि (upoccāri) or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम् (upoccāritaṃ padaṃ upapadam). The word उपपद (upapada) is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: cf. च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणि (ca vā ha aha eva etāni caprabhṛtīni yānyupapadāni uktāni ākhyātasya vikārīṇi)o Uvaṭa on V. Pr. VI. 23.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Upapāda (उपपाद, “birth”) refers to “coming into existence spontaneously” and is mentioned in chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “then he [viz., Mahābala, previous incarnation of Ṛṣabha] was born [viz., upapāda] in the hollow of a couch in the palace Śrīprabha, like a mass of lightning in a cloud. He had a divine form, symmetrical, his body free from the seven elements, [etc...]”.

Note: “birth” is not a strictly accurate translation of upapāda. The gods and hell-inhabitants are not ‘born’, but come into existence spontaneously.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Upapāda (उपपाद, “birth by descent”).—One of the seven sub categories of ascetics (nirgrantha-muni);—What are the peculiarities amongst different kind of ascetics with reference to the ‘birth by descent’ (upapāda)? The highest celestial birth of the pulāka ascetics is in Sahasrāra-kalpa among devas of maximum lifetime. The next two kinds of ascetics are born in Araṇa and Acyuta-kalpas with the lifetime of twenty two ocean-measured-periods. The imperfect ascetics of the second type and the passionless ascetics are born in Sarvārthasiddhi with the lifetime of thirty three ocean-measured-periods. The lowest birth of all these kinds of ascetics is in Saudharma kalpa with the lifetime of two ocean-measured-periods. The perfect ascetics attain liberation.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Upapāda (उपपाद) refers to “birth in special beds” and represents one of the three types of birth (janman, method of getting born), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.31. What is the meaning of birth in special beds (upapāda)? The birth which takes place in special bed without the union of the sperm of father and egg of the mother is called birth in special beds e.g. of celestial /heavenly and hellish beings.

according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.31, “the birth of celestial (deva) and infernal beings (nāraka) is (by instantaneous rise) in special beds (upapāda)”. What is the meaning of upapāda? It means the birth by descent-on-special-beds. On it the living beings are born in the same pose as they sleep on it. What is the form of special beds of heavenly and hellish beings? The heavenly beings have saṃpusta bed while the hellish beings have it in the shape of the mouth of the camel.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upapada (उपपद).—n (S) See upaśabda; upapadasamāsa m A formation by reduplication or adoption of an auxiliary word.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

upapada (उपपद).—An article.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upapada (उपपद).—

1) A word prefixed or previously uttered; धनुरुपपदं वेदम् (dhanurupapadaṃ vedam) Ki.18.44 (dhanurvedam); तस्याः स राजोपपदं निशान्तम् (tasyāḥ sa rājopapadaṃ niśāntam) R.16.4.

2) A title, a degree; epithet of respect, such as आर्य, शर्मन् (ārya, śarman); कथं निरुपपदमेव चाणक्यमिति न आर्यचाणक्यमिति (kathaṃ nirupapadameva cāṇakyamiti na āryacāṇakyamiti) Mu.3.

3) A secondary word of a sentence, a preposition, particle &c. prefixed to a verb or a noun derived from a verb which determines or qualifies the sense of the verb; उपपदमतिङ् (upapadamatiṅ) P.II.2.19; (see Sk. thereon). °तत्पुरुषः (tatpuruṣaḥ) a kind of Tat. comp. in which the last member is some form of a verbal character; e. g. वेदविद्, ग्रामणी, आकर्णलम्बिन् (vedavid, grāmaṇī, ākarṇalambin) &c.

Derivable forms: upapadam (उपपदम्).

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Upapāda (उपपाद).—The upper or dwarf pillar subordinate to a larger column.

Derivable forms: upapādaḥ (उपपादः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Upapāda (उपपाद).—(m.; in this sense not in Sanskrit; compare upapāduka, aupa°; corresp. to Pali upapāta, in cutūpapāta or cutup° Vin. iii.4.38; SN iv.59.13; and AMg. uvavāa, °vāya, birth, derived by [Ardha-Māgadhī Dictionary] from upapāta, but could as well represent upapāda; compare also upapatti, same meaning, from upa-pad-yate), birth, incarnation: Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 24.2 (verse) darśeti sattvāna cyutopapādam (= cyuty-upa°, Pali cutūpapāta, above; dvandva, fall from one existence and rebirth in another); Mahāvastu ii.359.12 (verse) cyutopapādaṃ jānāti sarva- sattvāna nāyako. Knowledge of this constitutes one of the three vidyā (see traividya) and is a product of divya- cakṣus as one of the abhijñā, Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. vii.106.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upapada (उपपद).—n.

(-daṃ) 1. Small, diminutive. 2. The subsidiary term in a compound word. 3. The first member of a compound word. 4. An aptote a word sometimes used as an adverb and sometimes as an inflected noun. 5. A secondary noun in a sentence in conjunction or apposition. E. upa before pada a foot, or an inflected word.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upapada (उपपद).—[neuter] a secondary word of any kind ([grammar]).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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