Tandula, Taṇḍula, Tamdula: 32 definitions


Tandula means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to “rice grains” and is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., taṇḍula (rice grains)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., kṣīravāri (milk with water)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Taṇḍula (rice grains) is also mentioned as a remedy for indigestion caused by nārīkeraphala (coconut) or tālabīja (fan-palm).

Cikitsa (natural therapy and treatment for medical conditions)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) or Śāli refers to the medicinal plant Oryza sativa L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Taṇḍula] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Oryza sativa Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning taṇḍula] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Taṇḍulā (तण्डुला) refers to “rice”, and is used in the treatment (cikitsā) of rat poison (ākhu-viṣa), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Kāśyapa has recommended a slew of generic formulae that successfully neutralise rat poison.—According to Kāśyapasaṃhitā (verse 11.57cd-58ab): “Fumigation with powder or cūrṇa of Kodrava and rice (taṇḍulā-cūrṇa) made into paste with kṣāra or latex, ameliorates poison”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल):—Another name for Raktaśāli, which is possibly identified with Śāli (Oroxylum indicum), a species of medicinal plant and used in the treatment of fever (jvara). It is described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to “rice grains” used when worshipping Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.11:—“[...] in the holy vessels full of water he shall pour water reciting various mantras after straining it with a white cloth duly. The sprinkling need not be performed until sandal paste is mixed. Then raw rice grains (taṇḍula) made beautiful (by adding turmeric powder etc.) shall be offered joyously to Śaṅkara”.

2) Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to “rice grains”, which are used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] now, O excellent one, listen to the quantity of and the benefit accruing from grains and pulses (dhānya) in their use for worship of Śiva. Heaping up rice grains (taṇḍula) by way of worship causes prosperity. Six and a half prastha, and two palas of rice grains constitute a hundred thousand in number of grains. These shall be used in their unsplit form for the worship of Śiva. [...] Worship of Rudra shall be performed at first and a fine cloth (susundara-vastra) shall be spread over the liṅga. The rice grains (taṇḍula) shall be put over the cloth at the time of worship. At the end of worship, a coconut fruit (śrīphala) shall be placed with scents and flowers (gandhapuṣpa) etc. and fumigated with incense (dhūpa). The devotee shall attain the benefit of worship”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to “unhusked grains”, piṣṭa is the ground flour. In Sanskrit a distinction is made between śasya, the corn in the field, dhānya, corn with the husk, taṇḍula, grains without husks, anna, roasted grains.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to “rice-grains”, according to Hemavijaya Gaṇin’s Kathāratnākara (A.D. 1600).—Accordingly, “The Brāhmaṇa, who is especially well-versed in the whole range of astral science, wore a forehead mark made of saffron and rice-grains [i.e., vinirmita-kuṅkuma-taṇḍula-tilaka]—{The round vessel is made of ten palas of copper. In the ghaṭikā [bowl] the height should be made of six aṅgulas. The diameter there should be made to the measure of twelve aṅgulas. The good cherish a water clock that holds sixty palas of water}—dropped the bowl, made fully according to the aforementioned prescriptions, in a basin filled with clean water at the time of the setting of the divine sun”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to “grain” (used for worship), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.39-45]—“[...] He worships with a mixture of white sandalwood, dust-colored powdered camphor, seeds, grain (taṇḍula), and sesame, [mixed together] with white sugar [that has been] combined with ghee and milk. All meditation done with effort and volition is the highest, etc. [and] causes one to thrive, etc. If, while [performing the agreed mediation], worshiping with Mṛtyujit [in mind, the king] obtains great peace [mahāśanti] instantly”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Kama-shastra (the science of Love-making)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (kama)

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to “rice”.—Cf. Taṇḍulakusumavalivikāra [= taṇḍulakusumavalivikārāḥ], which refers to “creating various designs with coloured rice grains and flowers for decorating mansions or temples”, representing one of the “sixty four kinds of Art”, according to the Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyaṇa.—Indian tradition, basically includes sixty four Art forms are acknowledged. The references of sixty four kinds of kalā are found in the Bhāgavatapurāṇa, Śaiva-Tantras, Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyaṇa etc.

Kamashastra book cover
context information

Kamashastra (कामशास्त्र, kāmaśāstra) deals with ancient Indian science of love-making, passion, emotions and other related topics dealing with the pleasures of the senses.

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Ganapatya (worship of Ganesha)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - (Ganesha)

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to “raw rice grains” (used in the worship of Gaṇeśa), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.18 (“Gaṇeśa crowned as the chief of Gaṇas”).—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Gaṇeśa: “[...] After prostrations, various routines shall be carried on. He who performs Vratas like this can secure the desired fruits. O Gaṇeśa, he who performs your worship upto his ability, with faith, shall derive the fruit of all desires. The devotee shall worship you, the lord of Gaṇas with vermillion, sandal paste, raw rice grains (taṇḍula) and Ketaka flowers as well as with other services. [...]”.

context information

Ganapatya (गाणपत्य, gāṇapatya) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Ganesha is revered and worshipped as the prime deity (ishta-devata). Being a minor though influential movement, Ganapatya evovled, llike Shaktism and Shaivism, as a separate movement leaving behind a large body of literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल, ‘grain,’ especially ‘ rice grain,’) is mentioned very often in the Atharvaveda and later, but not in the Ṛgveda. This accords with the fact that rice cultivation seems hardly known in the Ṛgveda. Husked (karṇa) and unhusked (akarṇa) rice is referred to in the Taittirīya-saṃhitā.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to “rice grain” (suitable for the fire oblation), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, “Now there lived a Brahmin called Viṣṇudatta in Navanagara. [...] In the crop-growing season he experienced a lack of water. With words of self-conceit, [possessing] approval [to use] mantrapadas he said, ‘I am going to send forth rain showers and summon Nāgas’. He sacrificed the prescribed fire oblation with sesame seed, rice grain (taṇḍula) and mustard seed anointed with pungent oil. He prepared an image-form of a certain harmful Nāga. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल)—One of the field-crops mentioned in the Jātakas.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: academia.edu: Tessitori Collection I

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल) refers to “water where rice has been washed” and represents one of 21 kinds of liquids (which the Jain mendicant should consider before rejecting or accepting them), according to the “Sajjhāya ekavīsa pāṇī nī” (dealing with the Monastic Discipline section of Jain Canonical literature) included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—This topic is explained with reference to the first aṅga (i.e. Ācārāṅgasūtra). This matter is distributed over the end of section 7 and the beginning of section 8 of the Piṇḍesaṇā chapter. [...] The technical terms [e.g., taṇḍula] used here are either borrowed from the Prakrit or rendered into the vernacular equivalents.—Note: Taṇḍula is known in Prakrit as Cāulodaga.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Taṇḍula.—unit of measurement; half of a dhānya-māṣa (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 48). Note: taṇḍula is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Taṇḍula.—(1/2) of a dhānya-māṣa. Note: taṇḍula is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Tandula in India is the name of a plant defined with Amaranthus spinosus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Galliaria spinosa (L.) Nieuwl. (among others).

2) Tandula is also identified with Embelia ribes It has the synonym Samara ribes (Burm. f.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Kurz (etc.).

3) Tandula is also identified with Oryza sativa It has the synonym Oryza sativa var. plena Prain (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· The Flora of British India (1896)
· Revue internationale de botanique appliquée et d’agriculture tropicale
· Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. (2002)
· Biodiversidad del estado de Tabasco (2005)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2005)
· Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. (1937)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Tandula, for example chemical composition, diet and recipes, extract dosage, side effects, health benefits, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Tandula in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

taṇḍula : (nt.) rice-grain.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Taṇḍula, (*Sk. taṇḍula: dialectical) rice-grain, rice husked & ready for boiling; frequent combined with tila (q. v.) in mentioning of offerings, presentations, etc. : loṇaṃ telaṃ taṇḍulaṃ khādaniyaṃ sakaṭesu āropetvā Vin. I, 220, 238, 243, 249; talitaṇḍulâdayo J. III, 53; PvA. 105.—Vin. I, 244; A. I, 130; J. I, 255; III, 55, 425 (taṇḍulāni metri causa); VI, 365 (mūla° coarse r. , majjhima° medium r. , kaṇikā the finest grain); Sn. 295; Pug. 32; DhA. I, 395 (sāli-taṇḍula husked rice); DA. I, 93. Cp. ut°.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

taṇḍula (तंडुल).—m Rice cleaned from the husk.

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tandūla (तंदूल).—m S Rice cleaned from its husk.

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tāndūḷa (तांदूळ).—m (taṇḍula S) Rice cleaned from the husk: also cleaned grains of harīka, rāḷā, sāvā, kāṅga, varī, baraṭī &c. As the word is used gen. in pl, it, in this number, better signifies a grain of rice &c. 2 Rice parched and afterwards boiled. A dish for fast-days. 3 A common term for the golden beads (shaped like grains of rice) of a necklace of females.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

taṇḍula (तंडुल).—m Rice cleaned from the husk.

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tandula (तंदुल).—m Rice cleaned from its husk.

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tāndūḷa (तांदूळ).—m Rice cleaned from the husk.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल).—[taṇḍ ulac] Grain after threshing, unhusking and winnowing; (especially rice); शस्य, धान्य, तण्डुल (śasya, dhānya, taṇḍula) and अन्न (anna) are thus distinguished from one another --शस्यं क्षेत्रगतं प्रोक्तं सतुषं धान्यमुच्यते । निस्तुषस्तण्डुलः प्रोक्तः स्विन्नमन्नमुदा- हृतम् (śasyaṃ kṣetragataṃ proktaṃ satuṣaṃ dhānyamucyate | nistuṣastaṇḍulaḥ proktaḥ svinnamannamudā- hṛtam) ||).

Derivable forms: taṇḍulaḥ (तण्डुलः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल).—m.

(-laḥ) 1. Grain after threshing and winnowing, especially rice. 2. A vermifuge plant: see viḍaṅga. 3. A potherb, a sort of Amaranth, (A. polygonoides.) E. taḍ to beat, Unadi affix ulac, and num inserted.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल).—[taṇḍ + ula], m. Grain after threshing and winnowing, especially rice [Pañcatantra] 104, 20; [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 76, 24.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल).—[masculine] grain, [especially] of rice (used also as a weight).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Taṇḍula (तण्डुल):—m. ([gana] ardharcādi) grain (after threshing and winnowing), [especially] rice, [Atharva-veda x ff.; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa] etc.

2) rice used as a weight, [Caraka vii, 12; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

3) = līka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) m. = lu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Taṇḍulā (तण्डुला):—[from taṇḍula] f. idem, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taṇḍula (तण्डुल):—(laḥ) 1. m. Grain or rice after threshing, &c.; a vermifuge plant; a potherb.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Taṇḍūla (तण्डूल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Taṃḍula.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tandula in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Taṃḍula (तंडुल) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Taṇḍūla.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Taṃḍula (ತಂಡುಲ):—

1) [noun] the husked, starchy seed or grain of the aquatic cereal grass oryza sativa, used as food; rice.

2) [noun] the lotus seed.

3) [noun] a weight equal to the weight of a grain of rice.

4) [noun] the plant Embelia ribes of Myrsinaceae family; worm-killer plant.

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Taṃḍuḷa (ತಂಡುಳ):—[noun] = ತಂಡುಲ [tamdula].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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See also (Relevant definitions)

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