Samvara, Saṃvara, Shamvara: 25 definitions

Introduction:

Samvara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Samvar.

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In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Saṃvāra (संवार).—One of the external efforts in the production of a sound when the gullet is a little bit contracted as at the time of the utterance of the third, fourth and the fifth of the class-consonants; cf. कण्ठबिलस्य संकोचः संवारः (kaṇṭhabilasya saṃkocaḥ saṃvāraḥ) Uddyota on P. I. 1.9.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Sāṃvara (सांवर) is the name of an upapīṭhas, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra verse 3.135-138, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—The Upapīṭhas are Śrījayantī, Kulutā, along with Mālava and Mahaujas, Kāṃcīpura, Kurukṣetra, Barbara, and Sāṃvara.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Samvara. The youngest of the hundred sons of Brahmadatta, king of Benares. See the Samvara Jataka.

2. Samvara. The Ajivaka mentioned in the Pandara Jataka. J.v.87; see scholiast, ibid., line 27.

3. Samvara. A chieftain of the Asuras, skilled in wiles. Cf. Sambara. J.v.452, 454.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Saṃvara (संवर) refers to the “condition” (e.g., of being a monastic), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[According to the Sarvāstivādin].—[...] Furthermore, if there really was neither past nor future, the condition of being a monastic (pravrajita-saṃvara) would not exist either. Why? As soon as he would be in a bad state of mind (duṣṭacitta) and would break his earlier commitments (śīla), this monk would no longer be a Bhikṣu. And as soon as a saint (āryapudgala) would return in mind to worldly things (lokasaṃvṛti), he would be just an ordinary person (pṛthagjana) since, [according to your hypothesis], there is neither past nor future nor present. [...]”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Saṃvara (संवर) refers to a “vow”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “[...] Immediately after those two sons (Siṃha and Siṃhavikrāntagāmin) were born, in one voice they spoke the following verses to their father, the kind Puṇyālaṃkāra: ‘(165) Virtue and non-virtue previously performed will never be gone, offerings to the Tathāgata will never be gone, resolution for the thought of awakening will never be gone, and the attainments of the most excellent learning will never be gone. (166) Generosity, morality, vow (saṃvara) will never be gone, the determination to be patient will never be gone, the application of vigour for the sake of gratefulness and making good actions will never be gone. [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Saṃvara (संवर) is the father of Abhinandana, the fourth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The wife of Saṃvara is is Siddhartha. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Saṃvara (संवर) is the name of an ancient king of Ayodhyā and father of Abhinandana, according to chapter 3.2 [abhinandana-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly: “Now in the division named Bharata in this continent Jambūdvīpa there is a city, Ayodhyā, equal to Purandara’s city. In each of its houses the moon, reflected in jeweled pillars, attained the beauty of a permanent, handsome mirror. [...] Its king was named Saṃvara, the moon to the Ocean of Milk of the Ikṣvāku family, chosen as husband by the Śrīs of all his enemies. The wealth of the sole king whose command ruled the entire surface of the earth did not leave his treasury, like the sword of a compassionate man its scabbard. [...]”.

2) Saṃvara (संवर) refers to “methods of impeding karma” and represents one of the seven tattvas (principles), according to chapter 4.4 [anantanātha-caritra].—Accordingly, as Anantanātha said:—“[...] Whatever action there is of mind, speech, and body that is āśrava (channel for acquiring karma). Good action is the cause of a good āśrava; bad action is the cause of a bad āśrava. The source of blocking of all channels is saṃvara. Nirjarā is the destruction here of karmas that are the sources of existence. [...]”.

3) Samvara (सवर) is the name of an ancient Ācārya, according to chapter 6.1 [kunthusvāmi-caritra].—Accordingly:—“[...] One day, feeling extreme disgust with existence, he went to Ācārya Samvara, and took initiation, which was like the boundary of the ocean. Observing strict vows, he acquired the body-making-karma of a Tīrthakṛt by means of the sthānakas, devotion to the Arhats, etc. In the course of time he died, possessing right belief and engaged in concentrated meditation, and became a god in the palace Sarvārthasiddha”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Saṃvara (संवर, “inhibition”).—What is meant by inhibition / stoppage (saṃvara)? To stop influx (aśrava) is inhibition / stoppage.

Source: HereNow4u: Jain Dharma ka Maulika Itihasa (2)

Samvara (सम्वर) refers to the “spiritual path” and is one of the topics treated in the Sūtrakṛtāṅga (Sūtrakṛtāṃga), one of the Dvādaśāṅgī (twelve Aṅgas) of Jainism.—Sūtrakṛtāṅga is the second Āgama of the Dvādaśāṅgī. Sūtra kṛatāṃga has 2 Śruta skaṇdhas. The first Śruta skaṇdha has 16 and the second has 7 lectures; in all 23 chapters, 33 topics, 33 sub topics and 36000 verses. Topics include spiritual path (samvara).

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Saṃvara (संवर) refers to “stopping the influx of karma” and represents one of the seven reals (tattvas), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Consequently, the sages have said that the seven reals are sentient soul, non-sentient matter, the influx of karma, the binding of karma, stopping the influx of karma (saṃvara), wearing away karma and liberation”.

2a) Saṃvara (संवर) refers to the “stoppage (of inflow of Karmas)” and represents one of the twelve pure reflections (bhāvanā), according to the Praśamaratiprakaraṇa 149-50 (p. 93-4).—Accordingly, “(A monk) should reflect, upon transcient [sic] nature of the world, helplessness, loneliness, separateness of the self from non-self, impurity (of the body), cycle of births sand [sic] rebirths, inflow of Karmas and stoppage of inflow of Karmas (saṃvara-vidhi); Shedding of stock of Karmas, constitution of the universe, nature of true religion, difficulty in obtaining enlightenment, which are (called) twelve pure Bhāvanās (reflections)”.

2b) Saṃvara (संवर) or “stopping” (of karmic influx) also represents one of the twelve themes of contemplation (bhāvanā), according to the Jain Yogaśāstra (vol. 2, p. 839).—Accordingly, “Equanimity is attained through the state of non-attachment. In order to attain that [state of non-attachment], one should cultivate the twelve themes of contemplation: on impermanence, helplessness, the cycle of transmigration, solitude, the distinction [of the Self and the body], the impurity [of the body], the influx of karmic matter, the stopping [of karmic influx] (saṃvara), the elimination of karmic matter, the correctly expounded law, the universe, and the [difficulty of attaining] enlightenment”.

2c) Saṃvara (संवर) refers to “stopping the influx of karma” and represents one of the “(twelve) reflections” (bhāvanā), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Stopping the influx of karma (saṃvara) is of two kinds—physical and mental. Putting an end to the acquisition of karmic material by an ascetic is declared to be stopping the influx of karma physically. The cessation of action causing the cycle of rebirth is considered to be stopping the influx of karma mentally. [...] Stopping the influx of karma (saṃvara) is like a great tree that is rooted in all the rules of conduct for a mendicant, its great trunk is restraint, its full branches are tranquillity, covered with the blossom of virtue and it is beautiful because of producing whole fruit through the reflections.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samvara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

saṃvara : (m.) restraint.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṃvāra (संवार).—m S Contraction, gathering up. 2 Compression (of the lips &c.) in pronunciation. See bāhyaprayatna.

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sāṃvara (सांवर).—f (śālmalī S) Silk-cotton-tree, Bombax heptaphyllum.

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sāṃvara (सांवर) [or सावर, sāvara].—m (sa & āvara) Recovery of strength; recruit of spirits; regathering of pristine health, vigor, power, opulence, dignity &c.; rallying or ralliedness. v ghē. Ex. alīkaḍē rājācā āśraya lāgalyāpāsūna hyānēṃ sāvara ghētalā.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saṃvāra (संवार).—m Contraction. Compression (of the lips &c.) in pronunciation.

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sāṃvara (सांवर).—m Recovery of strength; recruiting of spirits.

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sāṃvara (सांवर) [-rī, -री].—f Silk–cotton–tree.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃvara (संवर).—1 Covering.

2) Comprehension.

3) Compression, contraction.

4) A dam, bridge, causeway.

5) A kind of deer.

6) Name of a demon; see शंबर (śaṃbara).

7) (With Jainas) Shutting out the external world.

8) Provision; Buddh.

-ram 1 Concealment.

2) Forbearance, self-control.

3) Water.

4) A particular religious observance (practised by Buddhists).

Derivable forms: saṃvaraḥ (संवरः).

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Saṃvāra (संवार).—

1) Covering, closing up.

2) Contraction of the throat &c. in the pronunciation of letters, obtuse articulation (opp. vivāra q. v.).

3) Diminution.

4) Protecting, securing.

5) Arranging.

6) An obstacle, impediment; प्रत्यग्रापनीतसंयमनस्य भवतोऽलघुसंवारा गतिः (pratyagrāpanītasaṃyamanasya bhavato'laghusaṃvārā gatiḥ) Mk. 7.6,7.

Derivable forms: saṃvāraḥ (संवारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śaṃvara (शंवर).—(?) see saṃvara (4).

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Saṃvara (संवर).—m. (= Pali id.; compare a-saṃvara and saṃ- vāra), (1) restraint, control, obligation, vow: Mahāvyutpatti 1608 (text erron. saṃvāra); 1632; 7010 (in all these = Tibetan sdom pa restraint, obligation, vow), 9363 (= Tibetan sdom po or sdom ba); Lalitavistara 159.8 (verse) śīlaguṇa-saṃvaru (n. sg.); 379.14 (prose) saṃvaram (acc.; sc. from sin, atyayato) āpadyate; similarly Divyāvadāna 617.22, 24; Mahāvastu i.104.14 deśayanti dama-dāna-saṃvaraṃ (mss. °ra); samātta-saṃvarasya Śikṣāsamuccaya 15.1; prātimokṣa-saṃvara-, the moral restraints im- posed in the code called Prātimokṣa (= Pali pātimokkha- saṃvara) Mahāvastu iii.51.17—52.1; Śikṣāsamuccaya 17.7 (not by this alone can a Bodhisattva attain enlightenment); Bodhisattvabhūmi 155.26; Kāśyapa Parivarta 134.2; Udānavarga xxxii.27 prātimokṣe ca saṃvaraḥ; Mahāvastu iii.52.8 (akuśalā dharmāḥ…) teṣāṃ saṃvarāya: 423.3 ff. cakṣuṣā (śrotreṇa, ghrāṇena, etc.) saṃvaro; śīlasaṃvara- Mahāvastu i.143.1; Daśabhūmikasūtra 96.15; Jātakamālā 15.5; saṃvara-śīla-, morality con- sisting of s°, Bodhisattvabhūmi 138.24; 152.19; Kāśyapa Parivarta 103.3 tatra na saṃvaro nāsaṃvaraḥ; Daśabhūmikasūtra.g. 52(78).30 °raṃ samupācaret; Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 28.12 (verse) śīlaprayoga saṃvarakriyā ca; Lalitavistara 31.15, 16, 17 kāya-, vāk-, manaḥ-s° (see sambara 1); (2) rule, prescription (an extension or specialization of prec., found only in neg. a-saṃvara, q.v.); (3) (treated as nt. in Divyāvadāna 111.3, n. sg. °raṃ; the only distinctive occurrence), pro- visions (of food): Divyāvadāna 110.26 saṃvaraṃ cāropaya; 111.1, 3; [Prātimokṣasūtra des Sarvāstivādins] 500.5 piṇḍapāta-saṃvaraṃ (acc.), provisions for a meal; (is this meaning also an extension of 1, regulation, requirement?); (4) name of an asura: Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 162.12 (according to [Page540-a+ 71] Nobel, Tibetan seems to suggest reading Śaṃvara; compare also Sambara); (5) name of a hell: Kāraṇḍavvūha 50.4 saṃbare (so printed) mahānarake (read śaṃbare?).

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Saṃvāra (संवार).—: Mahāvyutpatti 1608; so also Mironov; see s.v. tāpa.

Saṃvāra can also be spelled as Saṃvara (संवर).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṃvara (शंवर).—n.

(-raṃ) Water. E. śaṃ happily, vṛ to choose or cover, aff. ac or arap; more usually read śambara. q. v.

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Saṃvara (संवर).—n.

(-raṃ) 1. Water. 2. Self-control. 3. Concealment. 4. A particular religious observance with Budd'hists. m.

(-raḥ) 1. The name of a demon. 2. Collection, comprehension. 3. Contraction, compression. 4. A mound a bridge, &c. 5. Concealing. 6. A kind of deer. E. sam before vṛ to choose, aff. ap; more usually derived from śamb or ṣamb to collect, and then written śambara or ṣambara q. v.

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Saṃvāra (संवार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Contraction, diminution. 2. Compression of the lips, &c. in pronunciation. 3. Protection. 4. Covering, closing up. E. sam before vṛ to choose, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṃvara (शंवर).—n. Water (see śambara).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃvara (संवर).—[adjective] keeping off; [masculine] weir, dam.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃvara (संवर):—[=saṃ-vara] a etc. See saṃ- √1. 2, vṛ.

2) Saṃvāra (संवार):—[=saṃ-vāra] a raṇa etc. See p. 1116, col. 1.

3) Saṃvara (संवर):—[=saṃ-vara] [from saṃ-vṛ] 1. saṃ-vara mfn. keeping back, stopping (in kāla-s, applied to Viṣṇu), [Pañcarātra]

4) [v.s. ...] m. (often written and confounded with śambara) a dam, mound, bridge, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]

5) [v.s. ...] provisions, [Divyāvadāna]

6) [v.s. ...] shutting out the external world (with Jainas one of the 7 or 9 Tattvas), [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of two Arhats, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] n. (with Buddhists) restraint, forbearance (or ‘a [particular] religious observance’), [Kāraṇḍa-vyūha]

9) Saṃvāra (संवार):—[=saṃ-vāra] [from saṃ-vṛ] b m. (ifc. f(ā). ) covering, concealing, closing up, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

10) [v.s. ...] compression or contraction of the throat or of the vocal chords (in pronunciation), obtuse articulation (opp. to the vi-vāra q.v., and regarded as one of the Bāhya-prayatnas), [Pāṇini 1-1, 9 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

11) [v.s. ...] an obstacle, impediment, [Mṛcchakaṭikā vii], ([varia lectio]) 6/7

12) Saṃvara (संवर):—[=saṃ-vara] [from saṃ-vṛ] 2. saṃ-vara m. choosing, election, choice (of [varia lectio] for svayaṃ-vara), [Mahābhārata vii, 6033.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaṃvara (शंवर):—(raṃ) 1. n. Water.

2) Saṃvara (संवर):—[saṃ-vara] (raṃ) 1. n. Water; concealing; self-control. m. A bridge; compression; name of a demon.

3) Saṃvāra (संवार):—[saṃ-vāra] (raḥ) 1. n. Contraction; compression.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃvara (संवर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saṃvara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samvara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samvara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Saṃvāra (संवार) [Also spelled samvar]:—(nf) maintenance/maintaining, upkeep; -[sudhāra] repairs, maintenance, upkeep.

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...

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Saṃvara (संवर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Saṃvṛ.

2) Saṃvara (संवर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Saṃvara.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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