Samdhya, Saṃdhyā, Saṃdhya, Sāṃdhya: 13 definitions

Introduction:

Samdhya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sandhy.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Saṃdhyā (संध्या).—Unfit for the procreative act. At this time Śiva is said to move with his gaṇas to different places; personified as woman; approached by Asuras lavishing praises on her;1 The time between Uṣā and Vyuṣṭi; the time for worship by means of Gāyatrī to relieve the sun from being attacked by Mandeha Rākṣasas,2 worship of, twice by householders.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 14. 23-24; 20. 29-37.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 108-13; 22. 11; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 15; 50. 162; 51. 11.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 12. 1.

1b) A R. of the Krauñcadvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 75; Matsya-purāṇa 122. 88; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 69; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 55.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Saṃdhya (संध्य).—A diphthong: see below the word संधिः (saṃdhiḥ) cf अत्थनामनी संध्यम् (atthanāmanī saṃdhyam).

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: University of Vienna: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Saṃdhya (संध्य) refers to “twilight” (i.e., ‘morning and evening twilights’), according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “An abnormal modification caused by a aggressive ritual against Kings, occurring at the improper time, dreadful and all-reaching, is characterized by the these signs: [...] frightful jackals enter unimpeded the innermost of the temple and howl loudly at the [morning and evening] twilights (saṃdhya), when the sky is lit up; enemies proud of their strength besiege the King’s [capital] city; [...] from such and other signs he should understand that the enemy is performing a aggressive ritual”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: HAL: The function of the Vṛṣasārasaṃgraha in the Śivadharma corpus (ds)

Saṃdhyā (संध्या) refers to the “junctures of the day”, according to the Vṛṣasārasaṃgraha: A Sanskrit text of twenty-four chapters contained in the Śivadharma corpus dealing with Dharma (religious duties).—Accordingly, [verse 11.59]: “Brahmā’s heart is Viṣṇu. Viṣṇu’s heart is Śiva. Śiva’s heart is the Junctures of the day. Therefore, he should worship the Junctures (saṃdhyā) [tasmāt saṃdhyām upāsayet]”.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Saṃdhyā (संध्या) refers to “twilight”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “A red twilight (saṃdhyā-sindūravarṇā), producing a sharp essence, an edge as bright as seven suns, A knife killing all enemies, a gleaming immortal striker held by the right arm”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃdhya (संध्य).—a.

1) Being on the point of junction; संध्यं तृतीयं स्वप्नस्थानं तस्मिन् संध्ये स्थाने तिष्ठन् (saṃdhyaṃ tṛtīyaṃ svapnasthānaṃ tasmin saṃdhye sthāne tiṣṭhan) Bṛ. Up.4.3.9.

2) Based on संधि (saṃdhi), euphonic combination.

--- OR ---

Saṃdhyā (संध्या).—1 Union.

2) Joint, division.

3) Morning or evening twilight; अनुरागवती संध्या दिवसस्तत्पुरस्सरः । अहो दैवगतिश्चित्रा पथापि न समागमः (anurāgavatī saṃdhyā divasastatpurassaraḥ | aho daivagatiścitrā pathāpi na samāgamaḥ) || K. P.7.

4) Early morning.

5) Evening, dusk; संध्यामङ्गलदीपिका विभजते शुद्धान्तवृद्धाजनः (saṃdhyāmaṅgaladīpikā vibhajate śuddhāntavṛddhājanaḥ) V.3.2; संध्याभ्ररेखेव मुहूर्तरागाः (saṃdhyābhrarekheva muhūrtarāgāḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.194.

6) The period which precedes a Yuga, the time intervening between the expiration of one Yuga and the commencement of another; चत्वार्याहुः सहस्राणि वर्षाणां तत्कृतं युगम् । तस्य तावच्छती संध्या संध्यांशश्च तथाविधः (catvāryāhuḥ sahasrāṇi varṣāṇāṃ tatkṛtaṃ yugam | tasya tāvacchatī saṃdhyā saṃdhyāṃśaśca tathāvidhaḥ) || Manusmṛti 1.69; अथासौ युगसंध्यायां दस्युप्रायेषु राजसु (athāsau yugasaṃdhyāyāṃ dasyuprāyeṣu rājasu) Bhāgavata 1.3.25.

7) The morning, noon, and evening prayers of a Brāhmaṇa; उत्थायावश्यकं कृत्वा कृतशौचः समाहितः । पूर्वं संध्यां जपंस्तिष्ठेत् स्वकाले चापरां चिरम् (utthāyāvaśyakaṃ kṛtvā kṛtaśaucaḥ samāhitaḥ | pūrvaṃ saṃdhyāṃ japaṃstiṣṭhet svakāle cāparāṃ ciram) || Manusmṛti 4.93;2.69.

8) A promise, an agreement.

9) A boundary, limit.

1) Thinking, meditation.

11) A kind of flower.

12) Name of a river.

13) Name of the wife of Brahman.

14) Any one of the divisions of the day (pūrvāhṇa, madhyāhna, aparāhṇa).

--- OR ---

Sāṃdhya (सांध्य).—a. (-dhyī f.)

1) Relating to the twilight or evening; साध्यं तेजः प्रतिनवजपापुष्परक्तं दधानः (sādhyaṃ tejaḥ pratinavajapāpuṣparaktaṃ dadhānaḥ) Meghadūta 38; Ki. 5.8; R.11.6; Śiśupālavadha 9.15.

2) Relating to the morning twilight or dawn.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Saṃdhya (संध्य).—(substantivized) adj. nt. (from Sanskrit saṃ-dhyā; probably semi-MIndic for Sanskrit sāṃdhya, adj., which is recorded only in meaning of the evening twilight, based on a commoner meaning of Sanskrit saṃdhyā), (rite) pertaining to the [Page558-b+ 71] three ‘joints’ of the day (so saṃdhyā in Sanskrit), morning, noon, and evening: prathamaṃ saṃdhyam ucyate (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 94.17 (morning), madhyaṃ…18—19 (noon), tṛtīyaṃ… 19 (evening); prathamaṃ °yam 99.5; tri-saṃdhyaṃ (the 3 such rites)…juhuyāt divasāny ekaviṃśati 106.24; tri- saṃdhyaṃ (adv. ?) ṣaḍ lakṣāṇi japet 107.10; as adj., vaśyārthaṃ sarvabhūtānāṃ tri-saṃdhyaṃ japam iṣyate 144.13 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃdhyā (संध्या).—f., i. e. I. saṃdhi + ya, 1. Twilight, either morning or evening, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 101; [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 51, 5; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 198; evening, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 41, 16. 2. The period between the expiration of one Yuga, or age, and the commencement of another, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 69. 3. Holy rites of morning, noon, and evening, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 69. 4. Evening prayer, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 37, 9; Mahābhārata 1, 1890. 5. Promise, agreement. 6. Joining, union. 7. Boundary. 8. A particular flower. 9. The name of a river. Ii. sam -dhyai, Reflection.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃdhya (संध्य).—[adjective] lying on the point of contact or transition, relating to the euphonic combination.

— [feminine] saṃdhyā time of junction or transition, morning or evening twilight (also = saṃdhyākārya); the twilight at the beginning or end of a Yuga; [Name] of a river.

--- OR ---

Sāṃdhya (सांध्य).—[adjective] relating to conjunction or combination; relating to the evening twilight, vespertine.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Saṃdhyā (संध्या) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Rādh. 2 (and—[commentary]).
—Āpast. B. 1, 150.
—Āśval. B. 1, 160.
—Vs. Peters. 2, 175 (and—[commentary]).
—Śāṅkh. Kh. 63.
—Sv. Kh. 63.

2) Saṃdhyā (संध्या):—Vs. Ulwar 215-17 (and—[commentary]).
—Sv. Ulwar 317.

3) Saṃdhyā (संध्या):—Ak 428. L.. 690 (Āśval.). 691. Peters. 6, 49. C. by Nārāyaṇadāsa. Peters. 6, 49. Trikālasaṃdhyā. L.. 697. 698, 1. Peters. 6, 26.

4) Saṃdhyā (संध्या):—and brahmayajña Vs. Ak 429.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃdhya (संध्य):—[=saṃ-dhya] [from saṃ-dhā] 1. saṃ-dhya mfn. (for 2. See [column]3) being on the point of junction etc., [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa; Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] based on Saṃdhi or euphonic combination, [Prātiśākhya]

3) Saṃdhyā (संध्या):—[=saṃ-dhyā] [from saṃ-dhya > saṃ-dhā] a f. See next.

4) [v.s. ...] 1. saṃ-dhyā f. holding together, union, junction, juncture, ([especially]) j° of day and night, morning or evening twilight, [Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] juncture of the three divisions of the day (morning, noon, and evening), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

6) [v.s. ...] the religious acts performed by Brāhmans and twice-born men at the above three divisions of the day ([accusative] with √ās or anv-√ās or upa-√ās, ‘to perform these Saṃdhyā services’, which consist of sipping water, repetition of prayers and mantras, especially of the Gāyatrī prayer; if regarded as an act of meditation the saṃdhyā may be connected with saṃ-dhyai), [Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa; Purāṇa; Religious Thought and Life in India 401; 407]

7) [v.s. ...] Twilight ([especially] evening Tw°, personified as a manifestation or daughter of Brahmā, and as the consort of Śiva, of the Sun, of Kāla, of Pulastya, of Pūṣan etc., and as the mother-in-law of Vidyut-keśa), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Purāṇa] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] a girl one year old representing the goddess Saṃdhyā at the Durgā festival, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] a deity presiding over the three divisions of the day, [Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-pariśiṣṭa]

10) [v.s. ...] the period which precedes a Yuga or age of the world (See yuga), [Harivaṃśa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] a boundary, limit, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] promise, agreement, assent, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] = saṃ-dhāna, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] a [particular] flower, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Mahābhārata]

16) Saṃdhya (संध्य):—[=saṃ-dhya] [from saṃ-dhyai] 2. saṃ-dhya mfn. (for 1. See [column]2) thinking about, reflecting, [Vāsavadattā [Scholiast or Commentator]]

17) Saṃdhyā (संध्या):—[from saṃ-dhyai] 2. saṃdhyā f. thinking about, reflection, meditation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) Sāṃdhya (सांध्य):—[from sāṃdha] 1. sāṃdhya mfn. produced by coalescence (as a syllable), [Nirukta, by Yāska]

19) 2. sāṃdhya mfn. ([from] saṃ-dhyā) relating to the evening twilight, vespertine, [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

20) relating to the morning twilight or dawn, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

[Sanskrit to German]

Samdhya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samdhya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Saṃdhyā (संध्या) [Also spelled sandhya]:—(nf) evening, twilight; select Vedic hymns recited in the morning or evening prayers; —[kāla] evening (time); ~[kālīna] pertaining to the evening; ~[loka] twilight; —[vaṃdana] (evening) prayers.

2) Sāṃdhya (सांध्य) [Also spelled sandhy]:—(a) pertaining to the evening; ~[kāla] evening; ~[kālīna] (pertaining to or functioning in the) evening; ~[velā] evening (time).

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