Pratishedha, Pratiṣedha: 20 definitions


Pratishedha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Pratiṣedha can be transliterated into English as Pratisedha or Pratishedha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Pratishedh.

In Hinduism

Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pratishedha in Mimamsa glossary
Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध) refers to one of the two types of niṣedha (prohibition).— Pratiṣedha is a prohibition of general applicability, eg. “During the Agama temple festival any form of untouchability must not be practised”.

Mimamsa book cover
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Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[«previous next»] — Pratishedha in Vyakarana glossary
Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध).—Prohibition, negation, prohibition of a rule or operation; generaliy प्रतिषेध (pratiṣedha) or प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध (prasajyapratiṣedha) is laid down by the use of the negative particle (नञ् (nañ)) connected with a verbal activity, and not with a noun in a compound in which case the negation is named पर्युदास (paryudāsa); cf. प्रसज्ज्यप्रतिषेधो यः क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदासः स विज्ञेयः थत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् । (prasajjyapratiṣedho yaḥ kriyayā saha yatra nañ | payudāsaḥ sa vijñeyaḥ thatrottarapadena nañ |)

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध) refers to a “prohibition”, according to the Āpastamba-yajña-paribhāṣā-sūtras.—“The Prakṛti stops from three causes, from a corollary, from a prohibition [viz., pratiṣedha], and from loss of purpose”. Commentary: A prohibition (pratishedha) occurs, when it is said, “he does not choose an Ārṣeya”.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pratishedha in Vedanta glossary
Source: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (vedanta)

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध) (Cf. Śaṅkara) means “to stand against”.—[...] Independent human reasoning (śuṣkatarka) or experience (anubhava) alone are not conducive to liberation. Therefore, those religious traditions that claim to be based on the inspiration of omniscient founders and/or on extra-Vedic revelations cannot be soteriologically-valid means of liberation. It is essentially on the basis of this argument that Śaṅkara refutes the authority of Buddhist, Jaina, Sāṃkhya, Yoga, Pāśupata and Pāñcarātra traditions in the second adhyāya of his Brahmasūtrabhāṣya. For instance, ad Brahmasūtrabhāṣya 2.2.45, Śaṅkara says that Śāṇḍilya studied Pāñcarātra because he did not find the highest good (paraṃ śreyas, i.e. liberation) in Vedic teachings. Śaṅkara interprets Śāṇḍilya’s attitude as an offense (nindā) to the Veda, and thus rejects the entire Pāñcarātra tradition on the basis that it stands against the Veda (veda-pratiṣedha).

Vedanta book cover
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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Pratishedha in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध) refers to “opposing (the negative emotions)”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 35.—Accordingly, [while discussing the ten notions (daśasaṃjñā)]: “[...] Others say that the ten and the nine notions are equally detachment and, together, nirvāṇa. Why? [...] 8. When the yogin uses the nine notions to oppose the negative emotions (kleśa-pratiṣedha), there is vairāgyasaṃjñā, the notion of detachment, [the ninth of the ten notions]. [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध) refers to “warding off (all hostile Nāgas)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [after the Bhagavān taught the great heart-dhāraṇī], “Serpent chiefs, this great heart-dhāraṇī, called Tathāgata Vow Garuḍa Flame, wards off (pratiṣedha) all hostile Nāgas, destroys and keeps back all clouds, thunderbolts, winds and lightning, protects crops, guards flowers, fruits and trees, produces the fruit of immortality, increases comfort and welfare. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

Jain philosophy

Source: International Journal of Jaina Studies: Haribhadra Sūri on Nyāya and Sāṃkhya

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध) refers to the “negation” (e.g., of the possibility of omniscience).—The Śāstravārtāsamuccaya by Haribhadra Sūri’s is not a compendium of philosophical systems (darśana) but a comprehensive account (samuccaya) of doctrinal (śāstra) expositions (vārtā/vārttā) or simply doctrines (vāda). The Śāstravārtāsamuccaya (also, Śāstravārttāsamuccaya) is subdivided into stabakas, chapters or sections, for example: Sarvajñatā-pratiṣedha-vāda—on the doctrine of the negation of the possibility of omniscience of the Mīmāṃsā and an unidentified Buddhist sect (bauddha ekadeśī mata)

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pratiṣedha.—cf. prakṣepa. Note: pratiṣedha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratishedha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pratiṣēdha (प्रतिषेध).—m S Prohibition. 2 Exception, contradiction, disallowal, denial.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratishedha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध).—

1) Keeping or warding off, driving away, expulsion; अशेषविघ्नप्रतिषेधदक्षमन्त्राक्षतानांमिव दिङ्मुखेषु (aśeṣavighnapratiṣedhadakṣamantrākṣatānāṃmiva diṅmukheṣu) Vikr. 1.8.

2) Prohibition; as in शास्त्रप्रतिषेधः (śāstrapratiṣedhaḥ); विधिप्रतिषेधयोः प्रतिषेधो बलीयान् (vidhipratiṣedhayoḥ pratiṣedho balīyān) ŚB. on MS.1.8.2; प्राप्तिपूर्वो हि प्रतिषेधो भवति इति अवाक्यशेषता अध्यवसीयते (prāptipūrvo hi pratiṣedho bhavati iti avākyaśeṣatā adhyavasīyate) ŚB. on Manusmṛti 1.8.22.

3) Denial, refusal.

4) Negation, contradiction.

5) A negative particle.

6) An exception.

7) (In Rhet.) Enforcing or reminding of a prohibition.

8) (In Drama.) An obstacle to obtaining the desired object.

Derivable forms: pratiṣedhaḥ (प्रतिषेधः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध).—m.

(-dhaḥ) 1. Prohibition, forbidding, exception, contradiction. 2. Denial, refusal. E. prati before, siddha to be perfect, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध).—i. e. prati-sidh + a, m. 1. Keeping off, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 266. 2. Avoiding. [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 125, 4. 3. Prohibition, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 215, 16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध).—[masculine] warding off, driving away, expulsion; prohibition, denial, refusal; negation or a negative particle ([grammar]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध):—[=prati-ṣedha] [from prati-ṣidh] m. keeping back, warding off, prevention, repulsion (of a disease), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] prohibition, refusal, denial, [???; Nirukta, by Yāska; Kālidāsa]

3) [v.s. ...] contradiction, exception, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) negation, a negative particle, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya; Pāṇini; Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti]

5) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) enforcing or reminding of a prohibition, [Kuvalayānanda]

6) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) an obstacle to obtaining the desired object, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध):—[prati-ṣedha] (dhaḥ) 1. m. Prohibition.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Paḍiseha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pratishedha in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratishedha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pratiṣedha (प्रतिषेध) [Also spelled pratishedh]:—(nm) prohibition, forbiddance; taboo; ~[ṣiddha] prohibited, forbidden; tabooed.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratishedha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pratiṣēdha (ಪ್ರತಿಷೇಧ):—

1) [noun] a prohibiting or being prohibited; prohibition.

2) [noun] a negating; negation.

3) [noun] a speech, argument denying, refuting something.

4) [noun] (rhet.) a kind of figure of speech that refutes, refuses to accept a popular thing or belief.

5) [noun] (gram.) the negative sense (of a word).

6) [noun] an order by a competent authority forbidding any activity; a prohibitory order.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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