Vaisheshika-sutra with Commentary

by Nandalal Sinha | 1923 | 149,770 words | ISBN-13: 9789332869165

The Vaisheshika-sutra 9.1.11, English translation, including commentaries such as the Upaskara of Shankara Mishra, the Vivriti of Jayanarayana-Tarkapanchanana and the Bhashya of Chandrakanta. The Vaisheshika Sutras teaches the science freedom (moksha-shastra) and the various aspects of the soul (eg., it's nature, suffering and rebirth under the law of karma). This is sutra 1 (‘perception of the soul,...’) contained in Chapter 1—Of Ordinary Perception of Non-Existence and of Transcendental Perception—of Book IX (of ordinary and transcendental cognition...).

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of Vaiśeṣika sūtra 9.1.11:

आत्मन्यात्ममनसोः संयोगादात्मप्रत्यक्षम् ॥ ९.१.११ ॥

ātmanyātmamanasoḥ saṃyogādātmapratyakṣam || 9.1.11 ||

ātmani—in the soul; ātma-manasoḥ—of soul and mind; saṃyoga-viśeṣāt—from a particular conjunction; ātma-pratyakṣam—perception of the soul.

11. Perceptual cognition of the Soul (results) from a particular conjunction of the Soul and the Mind in the Soul.

Commentary: The Upaskāra of Śaṅkara Miśra:

(English rendering of Śaṅkara Miśra’s commentary called Upaskāra from the 15th century)

[Full title: Perception of the Soul, how produced, in the Yogins who are (called) united]

Having thus ascertained popular perception having for its object existence and non-existence, he begins a new section in order to ascertain the perception of the yogins:

[Read sūtra 9.1.11 above]

“Knowledge is produced”—such is the complement (of the aphorism.) Now, the yogins or ascetics are divided into two classes; those whose internal organs have been steadied in samādhi or deep meditation, and they are called united; and those whose internal organs are no longer steadied in samādhi, and they are called disunited. Therein those who are united, having with eagerness fixed their mind on the object to be presented to it, are engaged in constant meditation; and in them cognition of the soul, of their own souls as well as of the souls of others, is produced. ‘Ātma-pratyakṣa’ means in the manner of the cognition in which the soul is the percept or object of immediate presentation or intuition. Although in ourselves and others also, cognition of the soul sometimes exists or appears, yet, as it is obscured by avidyā or nescience, it has been declared to be virtually non-existent. ‘Ātma-manasoḥ saṃyoga-viśeṣāt’ means from particular contiguity between the soul and the mind, namely, a favourable influence by virtue born of yoga or holy communion.—11.

Commentary: The Vivṛti of Jayanārāyaṇa:

(English extracts of Jayanārāyaṇa Tarkapañcānana’s Vivṛti or ‘gloss’ called the Kaṇādasūtravivṛti from the 17th century)

Having examined perception produced through ordinary or physical presentation or contiguity, he now explains perception produced through super-ordinary or hyper-physical presentation or contiguity.

‘Ātma-manasoḥ saṃyoga-viśeṣāt,’ from the conjunction of the soul and mind, accompanied by the power or virtue born of yoga, or holy communion; ‘Ātmani,’ there being effort or volition towards the origination of understanding, (ātmā meaning volition) on the authority of the lexicography: “Soul or Ātmā, Volition, Patience or Continence, Understanding (are synonymous),”—that is to say, when there arises the thought produced by volition towards the origination of understanding; ‘Ātma-pratyakṣa,’ perception of one’s own soul as well as of the souls of others; “takes place,” this is the complement of the aphorism.

Now, super-ordinary or hypher [hyper?]-physical presentation or contiguity is three-fold, according to its division as Sāmānya-lakṣaṇā, having the form of the genus, jñāna-lakṣaṇā, having the form of cognition, and yogaja-dharma, virtue or power born of holy communion. Therein yogaja-dharma is a particular merit or virtue produced by the practice of yoga or holy communion, and to the existence of which the Vedas, Purāṇās, etc., testify. It is again two-fold according to the two-fold-ness of the yogins as those who are united or have attained to holy communion and those who are in the process of being united or are in the course of attaining to holy communion. Among them those are called the united, who have subdued their mind or inner sense by the practice of yoga and have achieved the siddhis or ‘powers,’ perfection or attainments by means of Samādhi or meditation. It is they that are also called the specially united, on account of their possessing conspicuous or advanced yoga. Those who are in the process of being united are they whose minds are turned away from objects of the senses and who are immediate beholders of all objects through the accompaniment of contemplation. The present aphorism has been laid down with reference to such yogins only.

Note.—It would soem that the word viyukta has been differently used by Śaṅkara Miśra and Jayanārāyaṇa; by the former in the sense of the disunited, and by the latter as denoting those who are specially united through the possession of highly advanced yoga Vide IX.i.15 infra, Upaskāra. Śaṅkara Miśra obviously does not recognise the distinction, made by Jayanārāyaṇa, of the united and those in the process of being united. According to him, yogins ate of rwo classes, namely, the united and the ultra-united or dis-united.

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