Prayoga: 16 definitions

Introduction

Prayoga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis

Prayoga (प्रयोग) refers to “injunction of employment ”. It is one of the four classifications of vidhi (injunciton).—Prayoga-vidhi is the injunction(s) that describe the order of performance of all the subsidiary or minor parts of the central activity, it determines the process and order of all the actions which constitute the process.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (mimamsa)

Prayoga (प्रयोग).—Francis X. Clooney states that in the early Mīmāṃsā of Jaimini, prayoga signified the concrete, particular, event of the sacrifice: [The term prayoga focuses] our attention on the status of the sacrifice as an event actualizing many abstract relational patterns... Prayoga is an event: a particular happening in a particular time and place, done by a particular person. It is where all the many ritual connections are realized and actualized. There is no abstract prayoga, because prayoga is by definition an occurrence in time and space.

context information

Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Prayoga (प्रयोग) refers to “performance”. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.41, a performance (prayoga) is classified into four different dramatic styles (vṛtti):

  1. bhāratī (the verbal),
  2. sāttvatī (the grand),
  3. ārabhaṭī (the energetic),
  4. kaiśikī (the graceful).

2) Prayoga (प्रयोग) refers to the “performance” of songs (dhrūva) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 32.400:—“the performance (prayoga) relates to divine and human beings”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Prayoga (प्रयोग).—Employment or use of a word in language and literature about which, laying down rules is looked upon as the purpose of grammar; cf. प्रयोगमूलत्वाद् व्याकरणस्मृतेः (prayogamūlatvād vyākaraṇasmṛteḥ) Kaiy.on P. V. 1.16, लोकतोर्थप्रयुक्ते शब्दप्रयोगे शास्त्रेण धर्मनियमो यथा लौकिक-वैदिकेषु (lokatorthaprayukte śabdaprayoge śāstreṇa dharmaniyamo yathā laukika-vaidikeṣu) M. Bh. Ahnika I. Vart. 1;

2) Prayoga.—Use of speech; utterance; cf. मध्यमेन स वाक्प्रयोगः प्रणवात्मकः कर्तव्यः (madhyamena sa vākprayogaḥ praṇavātmakaḥ kartavyaḥ), T. Pr. XVIII. 4.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Hindupedia: The Hindu Encyclopedia

Literally prayoga means performance. It is the performance of sacrifice, the application of text to perform yajña. The injunctions to perform the sacrifice or vidhi are found in Brahmana portion of Veda. Kalpa Sūtrās explain the prayoga part further.

There are different stages in performing a sacrifice. It begins with cleaning the place and building the altar. Then the dravya is acquired. Then the priest is invited to officiate. Following that the altar is decorated and Agni invoked. Then the purification of each of the dravya is done. Then the homas (in the fire) and danas (alms etc) are done. The sacrifice concludes with cleaning up the place and taking the fruit of sacrifice.

Based on the dravya used and rites performed, there are two major classes of prayoga –

  1. Catuṣpātra (using four ingredients)
  2. and Ṣaṭpātra (using six ingredients).

Ṣaṭpātra involves the usage all the six dravyas mentioned above.

Catuṣpātra does not involve idhma and pūrṇa pātra. However, the regular rite that a brahmacari performs, does not mandatorily involve any pātra (though usage is not prohibited). Most of the prayogas nitya or otherwise, involve Ṣaṭpātra prayoga.

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Prayoga (प्रयोग) or Prayogavīrya refers to the “energy as practice” and represents one of the “three kinds of energies” (vīrya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 108) The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., prayoga). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Prayoga (प्रयोग) refers to “evil urges of body” and is one of the twenty-four activities (kriyā) of sāmparāyika (transmigression-extending influx). Sāmparāyika is one two types of āsrava (influx) which represents the flow of karma particles towards the soul, which is due to the three activities: manoyoga ( activities of mind), kāyayoga ( activities of body) and vacanayoga (activities of speech).

Kriyā (‘activities’, such as prayoga) is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Prayoga (प्रयोग).—One of the activities (kriyā) of transmigression-extending influx (sāmparāyika).—Body-activities like wandering, movements are called prayoga-kriyā.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prayōga (प्रयोग).—m (S) Applying, directing, setting upon, towards, against (a charm, a missile weapon, a medicine &c.): application, collocation, disposition (of words, phrases, members of sentences). Pr. prayōgaśaraṇāḥ vaiyākaraṇāḥ Grammariansmust follow the usus. 2 (Elliptically for mantrācā prayōga) A charm: also the application of a charm. Ex. tyā- pāsīṃ pra0 āhē; tyānēṃ majavara pra0 kēlā. 3 A form, a particular form or structure (as of a sentence or proposition). 4 The general precept closing a detailed statement and explication of points to be observed; the rule or canon deduced. 5 Reduc- ing to practice (of some rule or precept); conformable action. Ex. kimayācī kriyā jasī sāṅgitalī tasā āmhī pra0 karuna pāhilā parantu sādhata nāhīṃ. 6 Consequence, result, issue.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prayōga (प्रयोग).—m An experiment. Application. A charm. A form. Reducing to practice. Consequence.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prayoga (प्रयोग).—1 Use, application, employment; as in शब्दप्रयोगः, अयं शब्दो भूरिप्रयोगःअल्पप्रयोगः (śabdaprayogaḥ, ayaṃ śabdo bhūriprayogaḥalpaprayogaḥ) 'this word is generally or rarely used'.

2) A usual form, general usage.

3) Hurling, throwing, discharging, (opp. saṃhāraḥ); प्रयोगसंहारविभक्तमन्त्रम् (prayogasaṃhāravibhaktamantram) R.5.57.

4) Exhibition, performance, representation (dramatic), acting; देव प्रयोगप्रधानं हि नाट्यशास्त्रम् (deva prayogapradhānaṃ hi nāṭyaśāstram) M.1; नाटिका न प्रयोगतो दृष्टा (nāṭikā na prayogato dṛṣṭā) Ratn.1 'not seen acted on the stage'; आ परितोषाद्विदुषां न साधु मन्ये प्रयोग- विज्ञानम् (ā paritoṣādviduṣāṃ na sādhu manye prayoga- vijñānam) Ś.1.2.

5) Practice, experimental portion (of a subject); (opp. śāstra 'theory'); तदत्रभवानिमं मां च शास्त्रे प्रयोगे च विमृशतु (tadatrabhavānimaṃ māṃ ca śāstre prayoge ca vimṛśatu) M.1.

6) Course of procedure, ceremonial form.

7) An act, action.

8) Recitation, delivery.

9) Beginning, commencement.

1) A plan, contrivance, device, scheme.

11) A means, instrument; नयप्रयोगाविव गां जिगीषोः (nayaprayogāviva gāṃ jigīṣoḥ) Ki.17.38.

12) Consequence, result.

13) Combination, connection.

14) Addition.

15) (In gram.) A usual form.

16) Offering, presenting.

17) (a) Principal, loan bearing interest. (b) Lending money on usury; प्रतिबन्धः प्रयोगो व्यवहारोऽवस्तारः (pratibandhaḥ prayogo vyavahāro'vastāraḥ) ...... कोशक्षयः (kośakṣayaḥ) Kau. A.2.7.26; also कोशद्रव्याणां वृद्धिप्रयोगः (kośadravyāṇāṃ vṛddhiprayogaḥ)

18) Appointment.

19) A sacred text or authority. A text which brings together the various धर्म (dharma)s of a विकृति (vikṛti). A प्रयोगवचन (prayogavacana), however, does this only when धर्म (dharma)s are made available by the चोदक (codaka) which, therfore, is said to be the stronger of the two. चोदको हि प्रयोग- वचनाद् बलवत्तरः (codako hi prayoga- vacanād balavattaraḥ) | ŚB. on MS.5.1.8.

2) A cause; motive.

21) An example.

22) Application of magic, magical rites.

23) A horse.

Derivable forms: prayogaḥ (प्रयोगः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Prayoga (प्रयोग).—nt. (Sanskrit only m.), presentation of a dramatic performance: kiṃ idaṃ adya…parvaṃ vā °gaṃ vā utsavaṃ vā Mv i.232.10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayoga (प्रयोग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. Occasion, cause, motive, object. 2. Consequence, result. 3. Affair, matter. 4. Appointing, appointment. 5. Application, use, employment. 6. Ceremonial form, course of preceding. 7. Usage, practice, as in bhūriprayoga. 8. Hurling, throwing, sending. 9. Delivery, recitation. 10. Exhibition of a dance, dancing. 11. Practice, performance, (opposed to theory.) 12. Beginning, commencement. 13. Consequence, result. 14. Application of magic, magical rites. 15. Subduing, fascinating. 16. Device, contrivance. 17. Example, comparision. 18. Act, action. 19. Dramatic action or performance. 20. Principal, loan bearing interest. 21. Lending money at interest. 22. Profits of usury or trade. 23. A horse. 24. Text, authority. E. pra before, yuj to join, aff. ghañ .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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