Markandeya, aka: Mārkandeya, Mārkaṇḍeya; 14 Definition(s)

Introduction

Markandeya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Nāṭyaśāstra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Mārkaṇḍeya (मार्कण्डेय) is the name of a sage who was in the company of Bharata when he recited the Nāṭyaveda them, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35. Accordingly, they asked the following questions, “O the best Brahmin (lit. the bull of the twice-born), tell us about the character of the god who appears in the Preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). Why is the sound [of musical instruments] applied there? What purpose does it serve when applied? What god is pleased with this, and what does he do on being pleased? Why does the Director being himself clean, perform ablution again on the stage? How, O sir, the drama has come (lit. dropped) down to the earth from heaven? Why have your descendants come to be known as Śūdras?”.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Nāṭyaśāstra book cover
context information

Nāṭyaśāstra (नाट्यशास्त्र, natya-shastra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition of performing arts, (e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nāṭya) and poetic works (kāvya).

Purāṇa

1) Mārkaṇḍeya (मार्कण्डेय).—The son of Mṛkaṇḍu. He was a great devotee of Śiva. Genealogy. Bhṛgu, son of Brahmā, begot of his wife Khyāti a daughter named Lakṣmī and two sons named Dhātā and Vidhātā. (See full article at Story of Mārkaṇḍeya from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Mārkaṇḍeya (मार्कण्डेय).—A famous holy place. This place is situated about sixteen miles to the north of Kāśī at a place where the rivers Gaṅgā and Gomatī meet. He who visits this place would get the benefit of doing an Agniṣṭomayajña. Not only that, he would lift the prestige of his family. (Śloka 80, Chapter 34, Vana Parva).

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Mārkaṇḍeya (मार्कण्डेय).—A Siddha not lost in deluge;1 son of Mṛkaṇḍa;2 his firm and non-parallelled tapas and vow of celibacy; saw the Puruṣa sleeping on a leaf of the vaṭavṛksa; his āśrama near the Himālayas on a Śila-citra; Indra sent the God of Love, Apsaras and others to disturb him, but in vain; the mahātmā, seeing Hari in Nara-Nārāyaṇa form praised him; pleased with him as one who would be ever meditating on his feet Hari showed him what a pralaya was; Pārvatī and Śiva. saw him, and were praised; when Śiva offered to grant him anything he wanted, he expressed his wish to be ever devoted to him and Hari; pleased with him Śiva went away with Pārvatī; this worthy son of the Bhṛgu race having earned Yogic vision and absolutely devoted to Hari even now goes about the world;3 an authority on Rāma's story.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 15. 12; Matsya-purāṇa 2. 13; 186-3.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 45.
  • 3) Ib. XII. Chh. 8, 9 and 10.
  • 4) Ib. VII. 1. 44.

1b) A contemporary of Dattātreya; Purohita, the fourth incarnation of Dāttātreya, born to help him;1 narrated the mārkaṇḍeya purāṇa;2 acted as Brahmā in Paraśurāma's sacrifice.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 33. 11; III. 73. 89; Matsya-purāṇa 47. 242; 53. 26; Vāyu-purāṇa 98. 89; 109. 24; 112. 34.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 47. 242; 53. 26.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 47. 46; IV. 39. 55.

1c) Speaks of the greatness of the Narmadā to Yudhiṣṭhira;1 came to Syamantapāncaka to see Kṛṣṇa.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 190. 1; 191. 81; 192. 6; 193. 66; 194. 48.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 84. 4.

1d) A son of Manasvinī and Mṛkaṇḍu;1 wife Dhūmrapatnī and son Vedaśiras;2 present at Rāma's abhiṣeka.3

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 28. 5; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 10. 4.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 7.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 99.

1e) A disciple of Indra Pramati entrusted with a Samhitā; his son and grandson were respectively Satyaśravas and Satyahita who traditionally handed it down.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 60. 27-28.

1f) The sages, descendants and sons of Pīvarī and Vedaśiras.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 28. 6.

1g) A Mahā Purāṇa told by Mārkaṇḍeya; containing 9000 ślokas; he who copies it and makes a gift of it in the month of Kārttika attains the fruits of Puṇḍarīka yajña.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 7. 24; 13. 5; Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 4; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 6. 21; Matsya-purāṇa 53. 26-7.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Mārkaṇḍeya (मार्कण्डेय) or Śveta, the son of Sage Mṛkaṇḍu was born to a couple when they propitiated Śiva with their prayers. At the time of granting them their wish, Śiva gave them a choice between an intelligent son with a short life or an idiot, living for hundred years. Mṛkaṇḍu opted for an intelligent child. In course of time the couple begot a son and they called him Mārkaṇḍeya. The young Mārkaṇḍeya was not only extremely intelligent but also a great devotee of Śiva.

(Source): Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (purāṇa)
Purāṇa book cover
context information

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Mārkaṇḍeya (मार्कण्डेय) or Mārkaṇḍeyarasa is the name of an Ayurvedic recipe defined in the fourth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 3, grahaṇī: chronic diarrhoea). These remedies are classified as Iatrochemistry and form part of the ancient Indian science known as Rasaśāstra (medical alchemy). Meghanādā is an ayurveda treatment and should be taken with caution and in accordance with rules laid down in the texts.

Accordingly, when using such recipes (eg., mārkaṇḍeya-rasa): “the minerals (uparasa), poisons (viṣa), and other drugs (except herbs), referred to as ingredients of medicines, are to be duly purified and incinerated, as the case may be, in accordance with the processes laid out in the texts.” (see introduction to Iatro chemical medicines)

(Source): Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasaśāstra (रसशास्त्र, rasashastra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

Pāñcarātra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Mārkaṇḍeya (मार्कण्डेय) or Mārkaṇḍeyasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a rājasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika. b. Rājasa (eg., Mārkaṇḍeya-saṃhitā). c. Tāmasa.

(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)
Pāñcarātra book cover
context information

Pāñcarātra (पाञ्चरात्र, pancaratra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Nārāyaṇa is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaiṣnavism, the Pāñcarātra literature includes various Āgamas and tantras incorporating many Vaiṣnava philosophies.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Once there was a Brahmana couple who were issueless for a very long time. They practiced severe austerities and penances directed towards Lord Shiva. At last the Lord appeared before them and asked them to state their desire. The asked for a son to give purpose to their lives. Shiva offered them two choices, a son who would be wealthy, powerful and long lived, but of ill character, or a son who would be virtuous, but who will die when he turns sixteen. The Brahmana asked for a son who would be virtuous. The Lord granted the boon and disappeared.

(Source): Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Mārkaṇḍeya (मार्कण्‍डेय) is an ancient rishi (sage) from the Hindu tradition, born in the clan of Bhrigu Rishi. He is celebrated as a devotee of both Shiva and Vishnu and is mentioned in a number of stories from the Puranas. He is also mentioned in the Mahabharata. Also see: Markandeya Purana.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

Markandeya: The story of Markandeya, who defied death and won immortality as a star in space (SSS-II) Markandeya: As a boy, he knew all the Vedas and Sastras; at 16, he started meditating on Shiva so steadfastly that the day of his death passed him by, and he remained 16 for the next 10 million years. (See also: Markandeya , Hinduism, Hinduism Dictionary, Sanskrit Dictionary, Body Mind and Soul)

(Source): Experience Festival: Hinduism

Markandeya was an ancient Hindu rishi (sage), and a devotee of Shiva and Vishnu. Shiva had once rescued Markandeya from Yama, the god of death. Many years ago, a great destruction (Pralaya) took place. The earth was shrouded in darkness and nothing could be seen. There was neither sun nor moon. Lightning and thunder crushed mountains and trees. There were showers of meteors. Lakes and rivers dried up. The entire earth burnt with fire and the flames of the fire reached down to the underworld. All living beings perished in this fire, including the gods and the demons.

There was a sage named Markandeya. While all this was going on, Markandeya was busy meditating. Such was the power of Markandeya's tapasya that the fire dared not touch him. But it is also true that Markandeya was scared of the fire that raged all around him. He suffered from hunger and thirst and forgot all about his tapasya. His lips and throat dried up from fear. Markandeya discovered that there was a banyan tree that was untouched by all these ravages. He retired to the shade of the banyan tree and started to pray to Vishnu.

(Source): India Divine: Sri Markandeya an ancient Hindu rishi

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

mārkaṇḍēya (मार्कंडेय).—m (S) The name of a sage, the reputed author of one of the Puran̤s--the mārkaṇḍēya purāṇa. Applied, appellatively, to a very old man.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mārkaṇḍeya (मार्कण्डेय).—[mṛkaṇḍorapatyam aṇ ḍhak] Name of an ancient sage.

Derivable forms: mārkaṇḍeyaḥ (मार्कण्डेयः).

See also (synonyms): mārkaṇḍa.

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Relevant definitions

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