Jivanandana of Anandaraya Makhin (Study)
by G. D. Jayalakshmi | 2019 | 58,344 words
This page relates ‘Analysis of Adbhuta-rasa’ of the study on the Jivanandana (in English) which is a dramatic play written by Anadaraya Makhin in the 18th century. The Jivanandana praises the excellence of Advaita Vedanta, Ayurveda (medical science) and Dramatic literature as the triple agency for obtaining everlasting bliss.
Analysis of Adbhuta-rasa
(i) In the first Act as well as in the seventh Act, the playwright through the dialogues of Jīva, Vijñāna Śarmā and Buddhi (only in the first Act) portrays many mythical instances bringing out the greatness of lord Śiva and goddess Pārvatī. In many of these verses, the Adbhutarasa pervades the situations. While Śiva’s subjugation of Yama by hitting him on the chest with his leg and saving Mārkaṇḍeya from his clutches makes the onlooker awestruck, his intake of the Kālakūṭaviṣa to save the universe is beyond the reach of human imagination.
So too is the glory of goddess Durga’s victory over the cruel Mahiṣasura and the team of many demons including Śumbha and Niśumbha.
(ii) In the second Act, Karṇamūla, the spy while discussing with Pāṇdu, explains that the skills of the minister Vijñāna Śarmā are beyond description (II 37/38; p.119):
evaṃvidha-vividhavicitracaritra-vismāpita-sakalalokasya svāmihitakaraṇaikatānasya tasya mantriṇaḥ pāre khalu vāṅmanasayośvaritādbhutāni |
(iii) In the fourth Act, when Jīva, Buddhi and the minister go to the royal garden for a swing-sport, the minister appropriately remarks at the exceptional beauty of the garden where all seasonal plants have blossomed at one and the same time, raising wonder in the minds of the onlookers (IV.33; pp.224-25):
mantrī—(upaviśya udyānabhūmimabhito vilokya) deva āścaryamāścaryam | ihodyāne tādṛgpaśupatidayāsāditamahāmahimnaste sevārasaparavaśāḥ sarvata ime | yathāsvaṃ puṣyanto yugapadṛtavaḥ saṃnidadhate......... ||
(iv) In the sixth Act, the dramatist presents Kāla and Karma as witnesses to the war being stationed in the antarikṣa of the stage; this creates wonder in the minds of the viewers.
(v) The Adbhutarasa develops well in the seventh Act with the arrival of the Lord and the Goddess on the stage. Blended with the Sāttvatī-vṛtti, the author utilizes the invocations of Jīva and Vijñāna to highlight Adbhutarasa in each and every episode referred to in these glorious hymns.
Further, the description of Śiva as his presence is envisioned by Jīva and Vijñāna Śarmā is imbued with Adbhuta (VII.8):
prāvṛṇṇaiśatamisranīlatanubhirbhasmatripuṇṭrāṅkitaiḥ śūlodbhāsibhujaiḥ samāvṛtamidaṃ bhūtairabhūdbhūtalam ||
Such grand and lofty verses, as cited above, show the great skill and dexternity with which the dramatist has brought forward the Adbhutarasa.
Footnotes and references:
mārkaṇḍeyaṃ vyatanuta yadā sarvabhūtaistadādi stutyaṃ mṛtyuṣjaya iti yaśaḥ sphāramīśaḥ prapede ||
meghākrāntadigantadarśarajanīmūrchattamomecakaṃ tāpadrāvitadevadānavanaraṃ yaḥ kālakūṭaṃ garam |
jagdhvā jambviva bālakasribhuvanatrāṇaṃ tatānāṣjasā tasya drāṅmahimā na vāḍmanasayoḥ panthānamārohati ||
dūroddhūtaviṣāṇakoṭighaṭanācūrṇīkṛtāmbhodharaṃ preṅkhatpādacatuṣṭayīkhurapuṭaprakṣuṇṇapṛthvītalam |
kalpāntābhrakaṭhorakaṇṭhaninadatrastatrilokījanaṃ vikrāntaṃ mahiṣāsuraṃ yudhi purā ciccheda śūlena yā ||
śastracchinnasurārisainyapiśitāgrāsagrahaprītimatkaṅkakroṣṭari saṅgare sukhadhūmuktaprasūne sthitam |
devyā śumbhaniśumbhadānavavadhapraklinnacittastuvadrudrendrāgnikṛtāntanaiṛtajalādhīśānilaśrīdayā ||
VII. 11/12; p.443:
kapilamunikopānalabhasmīkṛtaprapitāmahasaṅghasamuttāraṇakṛtaprayatnabhagīrathaprasāditāyāḥ surāpagāyā bhuvamavatarantyā garvabhaṣjanaṃ nāma mṛtyuṣjayasya caritaṃ tadapi paramādbhutameva |
Also see VII.12: 13: 14:
vibhraśyantyabhragaṅgā vibudhajanabhuvaḥ sarvadurvāragarvā nirviṇṇā dhūrjaṭīyodbhaṭaghaṭitajaṭājūṭagarbhe nililye ||
śūlāgrakṣatadakṣakaṇṭharudhiraiḥ śoṇe raṇaprāṅgaṇe kīrṇo dantagaṇaścapeṭadalitādarkasya vaktrāntarāt |
vīraśrīkarapīḍanotsavavidhāvetasya vaiśvānaraprakṣiptojjvalalājavibhramakaro nāloki lokena kim ||
krodhārūḍhabhrukuṭiralike krūrakhaḍgaprahāracchinnagrīvatridaśanikaracchannasaṅgrāmabhūmiḥ |
śakraśrīdadruhiṇaśaraṇālābhavidrāṇavidyādānonnidraḥ praṇatajanatābhadrado vīrabhadraḥ ||