Jya, Jyā: 20 definitions

Introduction:

Jya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Jyā (ज्या) refers to a “bow-string”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the two horns of the moon should appear but slightly raised and far from each other presenting the appearance of a boat, she brings trouble on the sailors but prosperity on mankind at large. [...] If the moon should appear like a bow, there will be war in the land; and those will succeed whose places lie in the direction of the bow-string [i.e., jyā]. If the moon should appear stretched from north to south presenting the appearance of a carriage pole there will be earthquake (within that month)”.

Source: Google Books: The goladhyaya in Nityananda’s Sarvasiddhanta-raja

Jyā (ज्या) refers to the “sine”, according to a particular manuscript of Nityānanda’s Sarvasiddhāntarāja.—[...] The digital trace from f. 11 v (shown here to the right) depicts how Sine (jyā) and Co-sine (koṭijyā) of the arc-lengths (cāpas) are to be understood in terms of the parts of inscribed right triangles, and how the distribution of measures of arc helps the calculation of Sine values.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Jyā (ज्या).—1. Sine or Chord; (lit. bowstring.) 2. R sine (Radius × Sine). The R sine difference corresponding to the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant. Note: Jyā is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Jyā (ज्या) refers to “earth” and is mentioned in a list of 53 synonyms for dharaṇi (“earth”), according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia).  The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil [viz., Jyā], mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Jyā (ज्या) refers to the “bowstring” (of the bow of the charioteer), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.5.8 (“The detailed description of the chariot etc.”).—Accordingly, as Sanatkumāra narrated to Vyāsa: “The divine chariot of lord Śiva consisting of all the worlds was built by Viśvakarman with devoted effort. [...] Lord Brahmā was the charioteer, the gods were holders of the bridle. Praṇava the Vedic divinity constituted the long whip of Brahma. The syllable A constituted the great umbrella, Mandara the side staff. The lord of mountains became his bow and the lord of serpents the bowstring (jyā) [tasya jyā bhujaṃgādhipassvayam]. [...]”

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Jyā, koti-jyā and utkrama-jyā are three trigonometric functions introduced by Indian astronomers and mathematicians. The earliest known Indian treatise containing references to these functions is Surya Siddhanta. These are functions of arcs of circles and not functions of angles. Jyā and koti-jyā are closely related to the modern trigonometric functions of sine and cosine. In fact, the origins of the modern terms of "sine" and "cosine" have been traced back to the Sanskrit words jyā and koti-jyā.

Also see: trigonometry

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jyā (ज्या).—f S A bowstring. 2 The earth. 3 The chord of an arc.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jyā (ज्या).—f A bowstring. The earth. The chord of an arc.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jyā (ज्या).—9 P. (jināti)

1) To overpower, oppress.

2) To grow old.

3) Ā. (jīyate) To be oppressed.

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Jyā (ज्या).—

1) A bow-string; विश्रामं लभतामिदं च शिथिलज्याबन्धमस्मद्धनुः (viśrāmaṃ labhatāmidaṃ ca śithilajyābandhamasmaddhanuḥ) Ś.2.6; R.3.59;11.15;12.14.

2) The chord of an arc.

3) The earth.

4) A mother.

5) Overpowering force or strength.

6) Excessive demand, importunity.

7) A kind of wooden stick (śamyā).

8) The rear of the army; ज्या भूमिमौर्व्योः शम्यायां वाहिन्याः पृष्ठभागके (jyā bhūmimaurvyoḥ śamyāyāṃ vāhinyāḥ pṛṣṭhabhāgake) | Nm. Hence °घातवारणम् (ghātavāraṇam) A handguard used by the archers and °घोषः (ghoṣaḥ) The twanging of the bow.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jyā (ज्या).—r. 9th cl. (jināti) To decay, to be or become old. kyrā0 pvā0 para0 aka0 aniṭ .

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Jyā (ज्या).—f. (jyā) 1. A mother. 2. The earth, 3. A bowstring. 4. The chord of an are. E. jyā to become old, to decay, affixes aghnyā0 yak .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jyā (ज्या).—ii. 9, jinā, nī, [Parasmaipada.] i. 4, jīya, [Ātmanepada.] ved. 1. To overpower (ved.). 2. To be overpowered (jīya, ved.). 3. † To decay, to become old. jīna, see separately.

— Cf. (= ved. jyā), etc., probably also

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Jyā (ज्या).—f. A bow-string, Mahābhārata 1, 8193.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jyā (ज्या).—1. jināti [participle] jita overpower, oppress, deprive of (2 [accusative]), [Passive] jīyate (jīyate), [Desiderative] jijyāsati

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Jyā (ज्या).—2. [feminine] force, violence.

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Jyā (ज्या).—3. [feminine] bow-string.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jya (ज्य):—a jyakā See √1. jyā and 3. jyā.

2) Jyā (ज्या):—1. jyā (cf.ji) [class] 9. [Parasmaipada] jināti ([Potential] nīyāt; p. nat; [perfect tense] jijyau; [future] jyāsyati, [Pāṇini 6-1, 16f.]; [indeclinable participle] -jyāya, [42]) [Vedic or Veda] to overpower, oppress, deprive any one ([accusative]) of property ([accusative]), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.;

2) — (derived [from] jyāyas, ‘senior’) to become old, [Dhātupāṭha xxxi, 29] : [class] 4. [Ātmanepada] jīyate or [Passive voice] yate, [Vedic or Veda] to be oppressed or treated badly, be deprived of property (or everything, sarva-jyānim, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā vii]), [Ṛg-veda] etc.:

2) —[Causal] jyāpayati, to call any one old, [Pāṇini 3-1, 21; Siddhānta-kaumudī 46] :

2) —[Desiderative] (p. jijyāsat) to wish to overpower, [Ṛg-veda x, 152, 5] :—[Intensive] jejīyate, [Pāṇini 6-1, 16; Kāśikā-vṛtti];—cf. pari-;—βιάω.

3) Jya (ज्य):—[from jyā] b mfn. ifc. ‘oppressing’, see, brahma-jya.

4) Jyā (ज्या):—2. jyā f. = βία See parama-jyā

5) excessive demand, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa v, 4, 5, 4.]

6) 3. jyā f. a bow-string, βιός [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc.

7) (in [geometry]) the chord of an arc

8) = jyārdha, [Sūryasiddhānta]

9) cf. adhi-, uj-, parama-, viand sa-jya

10) eka-,krama-,krānti-.

11) 4. jyā f. the earth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) a mother, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jyā (ज्या):—(ga) jināti 9. a. To decay.

2) (jyā) 1. f. A mother; the earth; a bow-string; chord of an arc.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Jyā (ज्या) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Jīā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Jya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Jyā (ज्या):—(nf) a bow-string.

2) Jya in Hindi refers in English to:——the fifth and final (nasal) letter of the second pentad (i.e. [cavarga]) of the Devnagri: alphabet..—jya (ञ) is alternatively transliterated as Ña.

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Jyā (ಜ್ಯಾ):—

1) [noun] the string of a bow.

2) [noun] the earth.

3) [noun] a woman as related to her children; a female parent; a mother.

4) [noun] (geom.) the line segment between two points on a given curve, arch, etc.; a chord.

5) [noun] (geom.) a perpendicular line drawn from one extremity of an arc of a circle to the diameter that passes through its other extremity; sine.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Jyā (ज्या):—n. 1. bowstring; 2. chord;

2) Jyā (ज्या):—interj. expressing forgetfulness/mistake/repentance;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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